Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 6 (4), pp. 151-158, April 2016.
Manuscript Number: 022616046
Agricultural Water Management in Sub – Sahara Africa: Options for Sustainable Crop Production
Agada Odu Odo
Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Unversity Putra, Malaysia,43400, Serdang, Selangor.
In spite of her vast resource base, the majority of the population of Sub – Saharan Africa remain in a poverty trap engendered largely by poor agricultural productivity. One of the culprits for this consistently low agricultural performance is the poor management of her agricultural water resources. This paper reviews the current state of agricultural water management in the region and considers a number of the options available for sustainable intensification. The paper advocates an enlightened development of irrigation as part of a new perspective for improving rainfed agriculture. This perspective considers it a waste to seek system sustainability and resilience whilst the key players are incapacitated by poverty. The paper, therefore, recommends that any policy or strategy for productivity growth must be driven by the primary goal of empowering farmers as the main focus and not just a by-product of productivity improvement. To achieve this, improving water management in rainfed system appears the best option.
Keywords: Water harvesting, In-field water management, Sub-Saharan Africa, Water management, Poverty trap.
Africa Infrastructural Knowledge (2011). Africa’s agricultural productivity is the lowest in the world—in part because of the underuse of irrigation. Retrieved from www.infrastructureafrica.org/sectors/irrigation.
Anderson JCM, Zehnder AJB, Rockström J, Yang H (2011). Potential impacts of water harvesting and ecological sanitation on crop yield, evaporation and river flow regimes in the Thukela River basin, South Africa. Agricultural Water Management 98: 1113–1124.
Besada H and Werner K (2015). An assessment of the effect of Africa’s water crisis on food security and management. Int. J. wat. Res. Dev. 31(1)120-133; doi: 10.1080/07900627.2014.905 124.
Christiensen L, Demsy L and Kuhl J (2011). The (evolving) role of agriculture in poverty reduction–an empirical perspective. Journal of Development Economics 96, 239–254.
Dile TY, Karlberg L, Temesgen M and Rockstrom J (2013) The role of water harvesting to achieve sustainable agricultural intensification and resilience against water related shocks in sub- Saharan Africa. Agric. Ecos. Environ. 181: 69-79.
Du Toit DC (2011). Food security (General report of Directorate of Economic Services, Production Economies Units, Department of agriculture, forestry and fisheries, South Africa). http://www.nda.agric.za/docs/../foodsecurity.
Dzanku FM, Jirstrom M and Marstorp H (2015) Yield gap- based poverty gaps in rural sub- Saharan Africa. World development, 67: 336-362.
Escobar IC (2010). An overview of the global water situation. Sustainability Science and Engineering, 2.3-5. doi:10.1016/s1871-2711(09)00201-3.
Ewona I O, Osang J E, Udo S O (2014). Trend analyses of rainfall patterns in Nigeria using regression parameters; International Journal Of Technology Enhancements And Emerging Engineering Research. 2(5): 129 Issn 2347- 4289.
Falkenmark, M (2013). Growing water scarcity in agriculture: Future challenge to global water scarcity. Physiological Transactions of Royal Society, 1-14. doi:10.1098.2012.0410.
Falkenmark M and Rockström J (2008). Building resilience to drought in desertification-prone savannas in Sub- Saharan Africa: the water perspective. Natural Resources Forum 32, 93–102.
FAO. (2011). The State of the World’s Land and Water Resources for Food and Agriculture (SOLAW)— Managing Systems at Risk.
FAO (2013). The state of food insecurity in the world- the multiple dimensions of food security. http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/i3434e/i3434e.pdf.
Gajigo O and Lukoma A (2011). Infrastructure and agricultural productivity in Africa. Retrieved from www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents.
Hanson S (2007). Urbanization in sub-Saharan Africa. Retrieved from http://www.cfr.org/africa-sub- saharan/urbanization.
HLPE (2015). Water for food security and nutrition. A report by the High-Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition of the Committee on World Food Security, Room 2015. www.fao.org/cfs/cfs-hlpe.
International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development (IAASTD). (2009).Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) report, McIntyre BD, Herren HR, Wakhungu J and Watson RT (Eds). Washington, DC: Island Press In Besada H and Werner K (2013) An assessment of the effect of Africa’s water crisis on food security and management. Int. J. wat. Res. Dev. 31(1)120-133; doi: 10.1080/07900627.2014.905 124.
International Center for Biosaline Agriculture (2015). Training: Soil Salinity and Soil Fertility Management in Africa. http://www.biosaline.org/content/training-soil-salinity-and-soil-fertility
International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) 2012. The future of world food and nutrition security: investing in smallholder agriculture- an international policy. Retrieved from www.rurlpovertyportal.org
IFPRI (2010) Irrigating Africa www.ifpri/org.blogs
IPCC, (2007): Climate Change (2007) The Physical Science Basis.Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon D, Qin M, Manning Z, Chen M, Marquis KB, Averyt M, Tignor and Miller HL, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Kayombo B, Hatibu N and Mahoo HF (2004). Effect of micro-catchment rainwater harvesting on yield of maize in a semi – arid area. ISCO. 13th international Soil Conservation Organisation Conference – Brisbane, July 2004.
Kijne JW, Barron J, Hoff H, Rockström J, Karlberg L, Gowing J, Wani SP, and Wilchens D (2009). Opportunities to increase water productivity in agriculture with special reference to Africa and South Asia. Project report, Stockholm Environmental Institute, Stockholm. Retrieved from http://www.sei- international.org/publications?pid=1239.
Lane A and Jarvis A (2007). Changes in climate will modify the geography of crop suitability: Agricultural biodiversity can help with adaptation. Journal of the Semi-Arid Tropical Agricultural Research, 4(1).
Ludi, E. (2009).Climate change, water and food security. Background Note. London: Overseas Development Institute In Besada H and Werner K (2013) An assessment of the effect of Africa’s water crisis on food security and management. Int. J. wat. Res. Dev. 31(1)120-133; doi: 10.1080/07900627.2014.905124.
Makurira H (2010) Redrawing the rainbow of water to achieve food security in smallholder rainfed systems (Doctoral Dissertation). Retrieved from http://www.repository.tudelft.nl.
Mulira P (2010). Africa: Population explosion. Africa is sitting on a time bomb Analysis from allAfrica. Retrieved from http://allafrica.com/stories/201004010036.html.
Okoloye CU, Aisiokuebo NI, Ukeje JE, Anuforom AC and Nnodu ID (2013) Rainfall variability and the recent climate extremes in Nigeria. Retrieved from http://africaclimateconference.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/B4- 03_OKOLOYE.pdf,
Oweis T, Hachum A, (2006). Water harvesting and supplemental irrigation for improved water productivity of dry farming systems in West Asia and North Africa . Agricultural Water Management 80: 57–73.
Oweis T (1997). Supplemental irrigation: a highly efficient water-use practice.
International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, Aleppo, Syria In Rockstrom J, Karlberg L, Wani P.S, Barron J, Hatibu N, Oweis T, Bruggeman A, Farahani J and Qiang Z (2010) Managing water in rainfed agriculture- the need for a paradigm shift. Agric. Water management. 97(2010): 543-550.
Peacock T, Ward C and Gambarelli G (2007) Investment in agricultural water for poverty reduction and economic growth in Sub- Saharan Africa (a collaborative program of ADB, FAO, IFAD, IWMI and WORLD BANK) http://www.siteresources.worldbank.org/..synthesisreport.
Pinstrup-Anderson P and Shimokawa S (2006). Rural infrastructure and agricultural development. Retrieved from. http://www.siteresources.worldbank.org.
Rockstrom J, Karlberg L, Wani P.S, Barron J, Hatibu N, Oweis T, Bruggeman A, Farahani J and Qiang Z (2010) Managing water in rainfed agriculture- the need for a paradigm shift. Agric. Water management. 97(2010): 543- 550
Svendsen S, Ewing M and Msangi S (2009). Measuring irrigation performance in Africa. IFPRI Discussion Paper 894. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute.
The world Bank Group (2015). Rainfed agriculture www.worldbank.org/../rainfed-agric
UN Habitat. (2010).The state of African cities 2010: Governance, inequality and urban land markets. Retrieved from www.unhabitat.org.
World Bank (2007). Africa region: Irrigation business plan. Revised draft. Washington, D.C. In You L, Ringler C, Wood-Sichra, Robert R, Stanley W, Zhu T, Nelson G, Guo Z nd Sun Y (2011) What is the irrigation potential for Africa? A combined biophysical and socioeconomic approach. Food policy. 36(6): 770-782.
World Resource Institute (2013). Creating a sustainable food future: Interim findings (a menu of the solution to sustainably feed more than 9 billion people by 2050). Retrieved from www.wri.org/../wri13_report.
Xie H, You L, Wielgosz B and Ringler C (2013) Estimating the potential for expanding smallholder irrigation in Sub- Saharan Africa. Agric. Water management. 131(1): 183-193; doi: 10.1016/j.agwat.2013.08.011.
You L, Ringler C, Wood-Sichra, Robert R, Stanley W, Zhu T, Nelson G, Guo Z nd Sun Y (2011) What is the irrigation potential for Africa? A combined biophysical and socioeconomic approach. Food policy. 36(6): 770-782.
Zuberi T and Thomas KJA (2012). Demographic Projections, the Environment and Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa. http://www.undp.org/content/dam/rba/docs/Working%20Papers/Demographic%20Projection.
Call for Articles/Books
Call for Scholarly Articles
Authors from around the world are invited to send scholary articles that suits the scope of this journal. The journal is currently open to submissions and will process and publish articles daily, immediately they are ready.
The journal is centered on quality and goes about its processes in a very timely fashion. Seasoned editors/reviewers will be consulted to review each article(s), profer quality evaluations and polish the articles with expertise before publication.
Use our quick submit button to submit or simply send your article(s) as an e-mail attachment to email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Call for Books
You are also invited to submit your books for online or print publication. We publish books related to all academic subject areas. Submit as an e-mail attachment to email@example.com.