Singh et al
Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2 (4), pp. 108-129, August 2012
Ways to Maximize the Water Use Efficiency in Field Crops – A review
*Avtar Singh, Navneet Aggarwal, Gurpreet Singh Aulakh and R. K. Hundal
Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004, India.
*Corresponding Author’s Email: avtar_bimbraw @ yahoo. com
Yields of field crops in Indo-Gangetic
plains of India have decreased due to the advent of
increasing water scarcity in this century. The water is a
very limiting input in this region for the crop production;
its efficiency is quite low in the range 30–40 per cent,
thereby about 60–70 per cent of irrigation water is lost
during conveyance and application. Irrigation farming, the
greatest water user of all, has been made responsible for
inefficient water use. There is also not available new land
for agriculture to meet the demand of ever increasing
population in terms of food and clothing. On the other hand,
irrigation farming more and more has to compete with other
interests for dwindling resources in water. Therefore, there
is need to increase the yields and water use efficiency in
water limited environments. Thus, this review will focus on
the various water economization practices, irrigation
scheduling based on consumptive pan evaporative, land
configuration, selection of crop, varieties, intercropping,
moisture conservation practices, use vegetative barriers,
use of transpiration suppressants according to the
availability of water. In this article is also discussed the
ecological aspect of water, depletion of groundwater
resources, the concept of water use efficiency, need to
improve the water use efficiency, factors to enhancing the
water use efficiency which will help to sustain the
resources of water and productivity of crops. This review
article would be useful to convey the importance to work out
the water use efficiency to indentify the efficient
management practices, crop varieties/hybrids to get the
higher productivity with the availability of water. With
good management and adoption of appropriate practices
improved agricultural water conservation and subsequent use
of that water for more efficient crop production are
possible under both dry land and irrigated area.
Key Words: Indo-Gangetic Plains, Water use efficiency, Practices, Crop production, Water.
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