Temegne et al
Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 6 (7), pp. 209-225, August 2016.
Manuscript Number: 062716107
Agro-morphological Characterization of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Collected in the Humid Forest and Guinea Savannah Agro-ecological Zones of Cameroon
Temegne Nono Carine1,4*, Mouafor Boris Igwacho2,
Ngome Ajebesone Francis3
1University of Yaoundé I, Faculty of Science, Department of Plant Biology, P.O. Box 812 Yaoundé, Cameroon.
2University of Yaoundé II, Faculty of Science Economics and Management, P.O Box 18 Soa, Cameroon.
3Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD), P.O Box 2123 Yaoundé, Cameroon.
4University of Bamenda, Higher Technical Teacher Training College, Department of Civil Engineering and Forestry Techniques, P.O. Box 39 Bambili, Cameroon.
Background: Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important crop in Cameroon where leaves and tubers are eaten. However, its genetic variability remains unexplored in Cameroon. Local varieties are precious genetic resources because of their diversity. Mastery of this diversity is an important basis for crop improvement through plant breeding programs.
Methods: Local cassava accessions (89) were collected mainly in four regions belonging to the Humid Forest and Guinea Savannah agro-ecological zones. These accessions have been planted with the objective to characterize them, based on qualitative and quantitative agro-morphological traits. The experiment was carried out in experimental station of IRAD Nkolbisson, Cameroon.
Results: Significant differences (p<0.05) were observed for all the 14 analysed quantitative traits. Coefficients of variation of quantitative traits range from 11.85% (number of leaf lobes) to 55.75% (weight of shoot). Of the 14 quantitative traits studied, 7 had high coefficients of variation (CV>20%). The remaining 7 traits exhibit low variations. Root yields of 10 to 13 t/ha was observed with some of the accessions. The Principal Component Analysis for quantitative traits and Multiple Correspondence Analysis for qualitative traits revealed high dispersion of the accessions. On the cluster analysis for qualitative traits the accessions were classified in three groups. The dendrogram with the quantitative traits produced three main cluster groups of the cassava accessions evaluated.Conclusion: This work showed the variation in agronomic traits existing among cassava accessions in the forest and savannah agro-ecological zones of Cameroon that could be exploited to enhance cassava breeding programs.
Keywords: cassava accessions, genetic diversity, agro-morphological descriptors, principal component analysis, multiple correspondence analysis.
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