Nweke et al
Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 6 (11), pp. 331-341, December 2016.
Manuscript Number: 120516209
Tillage Methods and Wood Ash Effect on Soil Properties and Yield of Castor
Nweke IA1*, Mbah CN2, Okoli PSO3
1Department of Soil Science, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Anambra State, Nigeria.
2Department of Soil Science and Environmental Management, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki.
3Department of Crop Science and Horticulture, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Anambra State, Nigeria.
The effect of tillage methods and rates of wood ash on soil properties and yield of castor bean plant was studied in field trial at Abakaliki in three different planting seasons. The experiment was a split plot in randomized complete block design with three tillage methods (mound, ridge, flat) and four rates of wood ash (0tha-1, 2tha-1, 4tha-1 and 6tha-1) replicated three times. Crop start version 7.2 was used to analyse data collected and mean separation was done using least significant difference (LSD) at 5% alpha level. The results obtained showed that tillage methods had no effect on seed yield in first and second years planting season, but had significant effect on the parameter in third year planting season. The values decrease as the year of planting increased. Mound was found to give the highest seed yield among the other tillage methods (TM). The value of this parameter obtained from 4tha-1 (Md4, Rd4, and Ft4) rate of wood ash (WA) was higher in value than the other rates in first and second year planting. While 6tha-1 (Md6, Rd6, Ft6) rate of WA gave the highest value in third year planting. The TM and wood ash (WA) interaction result show significant differences among the tillage methods and rates of WA, the values increased as the rates of WA applied increased. The result of soil properties showed that TM increased the value of the nutrients assessed in second year, but decreased in the third year planting. The value of these parameters observed in ridge method was found to be higher when compared to the values of mound and flat. The WA amendment was found to change the soil from slightly acidic to alkaline in second year to slightly acidic in third year. There were significant differences (P<0.05) among the rates in all the soil parameters tested. The control soil remained acidic throughout the three years of study. The TN and OC were greatly influenced by the addition of WA. Their values decreased as year of planting increased with exception of OC contents that increased in the third year. TM and WA interaction show significant differences (P<0.05) on the soil properties tested. Their values increased as the rates of WA increased and higher nutrient values were obtained more on WA treated soil than on non-treated soil. Based on the results of the study, it is evident that the tillage and wood ash can optimise soil productivity, increase the nutrient status of soil and yield of castor and that 6tha-1 rate of WA will be ideal, if the cropping season is to be observed beyond two years as it had strong residual effect on the tested parameters.
Keywords: Tillage, wood ash, castor, soil properties
Agbede, T. M. and Adekiya, A. O. (2011). Evaluation of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) performance and soil properties under tillage methods and poultry manure levels Emir. J. Food Agric. 23 (2): 164-177.
Agbede, T. M. and Ojeniyi S. O. (2010). Tillage and poultry manure effects on soil physical properties, Nutrient status, growth dry matter and grain yield of sorghum J. Agric. Sci. Tech. 4(3): 45-59.
Akinola, M. O., Ojeniyi, S. O. and Amusan, O. A. (2012). Soil physical properties and soybean yield as influenced by tillage and ash (2008-2010). Nig. J. Soil Sci. 22(2): 255- 259.
Annogu, A. Azor and Joseph, J. K, (2008). Proximate analysis of castor seed and cake. Journal of Applied Science and Envt. Mgt. 12 (1) 39-41.
Aon, M.A., Sarena, D.E., Burgos, J.L. and Cortassa, S., (2001). Microbiological, chemical and physical properties of soils subjected to conventional or no-till management: An assessment of their quality status. Soil Tillage Research 60:173-186.
Awodun, M.A., Otani, M.S. and Ojeniyi, S.O. (2007). Effect of saw dust ash plus urea on maize performance and nutrient status. Asian J. Agric. Res. 12:27 – 30.
Bhattacharyya, R., Kundu, S., Pandey, S.C., Singh, K.P. and Gupta, H.S., (2008). Tillage and irrigation effects on crop yields and soil properties under the rice-wheat system in the Indian Himalayas. Agric. Water Manage. 95:993-1002.
Blevin, R.L.Smith, M.S.Thomas, G.W. and Frye, W.W. (1983). Influence of conservation tillage on soil properties. J. Soil water Conserve. 38: 301-304.
Bessam, F. and Marbet, R. (2003). Long-term changes in particulate organic matter under no-tillage systems in
semi-arid soil of Morocco In: Soil and Tillage Research International Conference, 2003.
Brady, N.C. and Weil, R.R. (2002). Nature and properties of soils, 13th edn. Pearson Education, Inc., Upper saddle River, New Jersey, 960pp.
Bray, R.H. and Kurtz, L.T. (1945). Determination of total organic and available Forms of phosphorus in soils. Soil Sci. 59:39-45.
Bremmer, C.J. and Mulvane C.J. (1982). Total Nitrogen. In Page Al, Miller RH, Keeney D.R, (eds.) method of Soil Analysis. Part 2 ASA No 9 Madison pp 539-579.
Eggball, B. (2002). Soil properties as influenced by phosphorous and nitrogen based manure and compost applications, Agron. J. 94:128 – 135.
Eynard, A., Schumacher, T.E., Lindstrom, M.J. and Malo, O.D. (2004). Aggregate size and stability in cultivated south Dakota prairie ustols and usters, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 68: 1360-1365.
Federal Department of Agriculture and Land Resources. (1990). Soil Survey of Nigeria and Ratings for Soil Data Interpretation in the Tropics, FDALR—publication, Kaduna.
Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources (1990). Literature review on soil fertility investigation in Nigeria (in five volumes), Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Lagos.
Gomez, E., Ferras, L., Toresani, S., Austitio, A., and Bizrro, V., (2001). Changes in some soil properties in a vertic Arguitdoll under short term conservation tillage. Soil Till. Research, 61:179-186.
Griffith, D.R., Mannering, J.V., Galloway, H.M., Parson, S.D. and Richey, C.B. (1993). Effect of eight tillage planting systems on soil temperature, percent stand, plant growth and yield of corn on five Indiana soils Agron. J. 65:321 – 326.
Gren, V.S., Stott D.E., Cruz, J.C., Curi, N., (2007). Tillage impact on soil biological activity and aggregation in a Brazilian Cerrada oxisol. Soil Till. Res. 92: 114-121.
Hartemink A.E.(2006). Assessing soil fertility Decline in the tropics using soil chemical data. Advance in Agronomy 89, 179-225.
Heenan, D.P., Chan, K. Y. and Knight, P.G. (2004). Long-term impact of rotation, tillage and stubble management on the loss of soil organic carbon and nitrogen from a chronic levisol. Soil Till. Res. 76:59-68.
Herman, B. and Cameron, K.C. (1993). Structural change in silt loam underLong-term conventional or minimum tillage, Soil Till. Res., 26: 139-150
Ishaq, M., Ibrahim, M. and Lal, R. (2002). Tillage effect on nutrient uptake by wheat and cotton as influenced by fertilizer rate Soil Till Res. 62:41 – 53.
Karunatilake, U.P. and Vans Es, H. M. (2002). A Rainfall and tillage effects on soil structure after alfalfa conversion to maize on a clay loam soil in New York. Soil Till. Res. 67:135 – 146.
Khormali, F. and Shamsi (2009). Micromophology and quality. Attributes of the loess derived soils. Affected by land use changes. A case study in Ghapan water shed, northern Iran, J.Mt. Sci: 6:197 – 204.
Klaij, M.C.and Hoogmoed, W.B., (1993). Soil management for crop production in the West African Sahel. 11. Emergency, Establishment and yield of pearl millet. Soil Tillage Res., 25:301-315.
Kombiok, J.M. Safo, E.Y. and Quansah, C. (2005). Yield and nitrogen fixation of cowpea as affected by tillage and cropping systems in the northern savanna zone of Ghana, West Africa J. Agric. Ecol., 7:95 – 108.
Kurshid, K., Igbal, M., Arif, M.S. and Nawaz, A. (2006) Effect of tillage and mulch on soil, physical properties and growth of maize Int. J. Agric. Biol. 5:593 - 596.
Madejon, E., Moreno, F., Munillo, J.M. and Pelegrin, F. (2007). Soil biochemical response to long term conservation tillage under semi arid mediterranean conditions. Soil Till. Res. 94 (2):346 – 352.
Majaliwa, J.G., Twongyirwe, R., Nyenje, R., Oluka, M. Ongom B., Sirike, J., Mfitumkiza, D. Azanga E., Natumanya, R., Mwerera, R. and Barasa, B. (2010). The effect of land use and cover change on soil properties around kibale National Park in southtern Uganda, Appl. Environ. Soil Sci 10:1-7.
Martens, D.A., Reedy, T. and Lewis, D. T. (2003). Soil organic carbon content and composition of 130 year crop pasture and forest land use managements. Global Change Biology. 10:65 – 78.
Mbagwu, J.S.C. (1992). Improving the productivity of a degraded ultisol in Nigeria using organic and inorganic amendments. Part2. Changes in physical properties, Biores. Tech. 42: 167-175.
Mbah, C.N., Nwite .J.N., Njoku, C. and Nweke, I.A. (2010). Response of maize (Zea mays l.) to different rates of wood ash Application in acid ultisol in south east Nigeria. Afri. J. Agric. Res. 5(7) pp 580-583.
McCarty, G.W., Lyssenko, N.W. and Satrr, J.L, (1998). Short term changes in soil carbon and nitrogen pools during tillage management transition. Soil Soc. AM. J.62:1564-1571.
Nael, M., Khademi, H. and Hajabbasi, M.A. (2004). Responses of soil quality indicators and their spatial variability to land degradation in central Iran. Appl. Soil Ecol. 27. 221 – 232.
Nelson D. W. and Sommers L. E. (1982). Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter; In: Page, A. L. (ed), Method of soil analysis; Part 2 Chemical and Microbiological Properties 2nd edn, Agronomy Series No. 9.
Nweke, I. A. (2015). Effect of land use on organic matter concentration of aggregate fractions of fallow and cultivated soils. Indian J. Appl. Res. 5(3): 507- 511.
Nweke, I. A., and Nnabude, P. C. (2015). Aggregates stability of four soils as evaluated by different indices. J. Expt. Biol. Agric. Sci. 3(3): 246-252.
Nweke, I. A., Okoli, P. S. O., and Enyioko, C. O. (2014). Effect of different rates of poultry droppings and plant spacing on chemical properties and yield of cucumber, Elixir Agric. 70(2014): 23934-23940.
Nweke, I.A (2014). Effect of Guinea grass compost on soil properties, growth and yield of maize Indian J. App. Res. 4(10):10-13.
Odedina, S.A., Odedina, J.N., Ayeni, S.O., Arowojolu, S.A., Adedeye S.D and Ojeniyi, S.O. (2003). Effect of types of wood ash on soil fertility nutrient availability and yield of tomato and pepper. Nig. J.Soil Sci. 13:61-67.
Odum, M.A. (2007). Effect of saw dust ash on soil chemical properties and cowpea performance in south eastern Nigeria. I.J.Sc 2(1): 78-81.
Ofori, C.S. (1993). Towards the development and technology transfer of soil Management practices for increase Agricultural Production in Africa. In: sustaining soil Productivity in intensive African Agriculture. Seminar proceedings. Accra, Ghana 15-19pp.
Ojeniyi S. O., Adekiya, A. O. and Amusan, O. A. (2012). Three years influence of tillage and poultry manure on soil physical properties and yield of cocoyam. Nig. J. Soil Sci. 22(2): 119-127
Ojeniyi, S.O. and Adejobi, K.B. (2002). Effect of ash and goat dropping manure on leaf nutrient composition, growth and yield of Amaranthus. Nig. Agric. J. 32: 46-49.
Okonkwo, C.I., Nwite, J.N, Onyibe, C., Nweke, I.A. and Mbah, C.N. (2011). Animal manures mineralisation and plant nitrogen uptake in an ultisol in Abakaliki, southeast Nigeria, J. Agric. Biol. Sci. 2(5): 123 – 128.
Owolabi, O., Adeyele, A., Oladeje, B.T. and Ojeniyi, S.O. (2003). Effect of wood ash on soil fertility and crop yield in southwest Nigeria, Nig. J. Soil Sci. 13:55 – 60.
Shah, S.A., Shah, S.M., Mohammad, W., Shafi, M., and Nawaz, H., (2009). N uptake and yield of wheat as influenced by integrated use of organic and mineral nitrogen. Int. J. Plant Prod. 3:45-56.
Singh, C., Singh, P. and Singh, R. (2003). Modern techniques of raising field Crops. 2nd Edn. 325-336 pp. Oxford & IBH Co. Ltd. New Delhi.
Six,J. Paustian,K. Elliott, E.T. and Combrink, C. (2000). Soil structure and soil organic matter. 1. Distribution of aggregate size classes and aggregate associated carbon. Soil Sci. Soc. Am.J.64:681-689.
Strudley M.W., Green, T.R. and Ascough, J.C. (2008). Tillage effects on soil. Soil Till. Res. 99:4 – 98.
Wasswa,B.N. Mugendi, D.N., Vanlauwe,B., Nandwa,S.,and Kungu,J. (2003). Organic crop residues effects on soil physical and chemical properties in Kenya. Proceedings of the 21st SSEA Conference 2003.
Call for Articles/Books
Call for Scholarly Articles
Authors from around the world are invited to send scholary articles that suits the scope of this journal. The journal is currently open to submissions and will process and publish articles daily, immediately they are ready.
The journal is centered on quality and goes about its processes in a very timely fashion. Seasoned editors/reviewers will be consulted to review each article(s), profer quality evaluations and polish the articles with expertise before publication.
Use our quick submit button to submit or simply send your article(s) as an e-mail attachment to firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com.
Call for Books
You are also invited to submit your books for online or print publication. We publish books related to all academic subject areas. Submit as an e-mail attachment to firstname.lastname@example.org.