Marowa et al
Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 5 (1), pp. 001-013, February 2015.
Manuscript Number: 091614361
Effect of Leaf Priming Removal Level and Fertilization Rate on Yield of Tobacco in Zimbabwe
Marowa Prince1, Mtaita T. A.1* and Rukuni D.2
1 Africa University, P O Box 1320, Mutare, Zimbabwe
2 Tobacco Research Board, Harare, Zimbabwe
*Corresponding Author Email: tamtaita @ africau. edu
Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is one of Zimbabwe’s most valuable crop. It accounts for about 26 % agricultural gross domestic product and 61 % of agricultural exports. It is therefore important to work towards continuously improving its yield and quality. Leaf priming removal could improve the yield and quality of flue-cured tobacco. A field experiment was carried out at Kutsaga Research Station to investigate the possibility of improving yield and quality of cured leaf by removing the lower leaves (primings) and applying additional nitrogen to the remaining leaves. The experiment was laid out as a split plot experiment in a randomized complete block design with three replications. A plant spacing of 1.2 m between rows and 0.56 m within rows was used. All recommended agronomic practices in flue-cured tobacco production were observed except that 0, 2, 4 and 6 lowest leaves were removed and discarded at 6 weeks after planting. A supplementary ammonium nitrate side dressing was applied at topping at a rate of 0, 5, 10 and 25 kg N/ha. The removal of 4 leaves plus the addition of 10 kg N/ha at topping resulted in a 22.42 % increase in income above that obtained from the control. However, removal of 4 leaves plus excessive amounts of N (25 kg/ha) resulted in very large leaves but the saleable yield was lower than that from the control or other plots with the same priming removal level plus less additional N. The addition of 25 kg N/ha when only 2 leaves were removed produced the highest saleable yield and recorded 19.67 % yield increase above the control. Addition of 10kg N/ha when 4 leaves were removed resulted in 19.04 % yield increase above the control. The latter however had a better grade index. It was also noted that the removal of 4 leaves plus an extra 10 kg N/ha at topping and the removal of 2 leaves plus an additional 25 kg N/ha at topping resulted in a substantial increase of the saleable yield for all reaping groups. Removal of priming leaves plus the addition of supplementary nitrogen did not increase leaf expansion. It did not lower yields but it improved the quality of the cured leaf and this resulted in better income basing on the gross margin of the expanded project. It is therefore concluded that the removal of the lowest 4 leaves plus an addition of an extra 10 kg N/ha neither lowers yield nor quality but brings with it income benefits to the farmer.
Keywords: Tobacco, Tobacco Yield, Leaf Priming Removal.
Collins, W.K., Hawks, S.N. Jr., and Kittrell, B.U.1969. Effects of plant spacing and height of topping at two nitrogen rates on some agronomic-economic characteristics on bright tobacco.Tob. Sci. 13:150-52.
Collins, W. K. andHawks, S.N., Jr. 1993.Principles of Flue-Cured Tobacco Production.North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC. pp. 23 - 98.
Court, W.A. and Hendel, J.G. 1989. Influence of removing lower leaves and topping height on agronomic and chemical characteristics of flue-cured tobacco. Tob. Sci. 33:15-17.
Currin, R.E. and Pitner, J.B. 1980. Agronomic and chemical effects of removing the four bottom from flue-cured tobacco at various stages of growth.South Carolina Agric. Exp. Stat. Bull. 628 pp. 1-4
Edwards, P.B. 2005. Effect of management practices on grade distribution in flue-cured tobacco.M.Sc.Thesis, North Caroline State University.
FAO, 1999. Agriculture, trade and food security: Issues and options in the WTO negotiations from the perspective of developing countries - Report on papers of a FAO symposium held in Geneva. Geneva.
Fisher, P. 1999. Cigarette manufacture and blending.346-52.In Tobacco Production, Chemistry and Technology (D.L. Davis and M.T. Nielson, Ed.).Blackwell Science, Malden, MA.
Flower, K.C. 1999. Field Practices pp 76-97. In: Layton Davis and Mark Nielson. Tobacco Production, Chemistry and Technology. Blackwell, London.
Hao, J. and Chao Yang, C. 2001.Effects of topping and leaves remained on the yield and quality of flue-cured tobacco variety K326.Journal of Fujian Agricultural University.2001-2003.
Khodabandeh, N. (2006). Agronomy of Industrial plants.Tehran University Press
Nyamapfene, K.W. 1991. Soils of Zimbabwe.FirstEdition.Nehanda Publishers (Pvt.) Ltd., Harare, Zimbabwe, pp: 75-79.
North Carolina. 2013. Flue-cured tobacco production hand book. Extension Service. North Caroline Inc.
Pandeya, R.S. Rosa, N. Wite, F.H. and Elliot, J.M. 2001. Rapid estimation, of some flue-cured tobacco chemical characteristics by infrared–reflectance spectroscopy.Tobacco science. 22:27-31.
Parker, R.G. 2009. Evaluation of nitrogen sources and rates on yield and quality of modern flue-cured tobacco cultivars. DPhil Dissertation. North Caroline State University.
Peterson, L.A. 1960. Growth and quality of tobacco as affected by nitrogen uptake.Tob. Sci. 3:24-26.
Qi, Y.C., Ma, L., Wang, F.F. and Liu, W.Q. 2011.Construction and analysis of roots suppression subtraction hybridization cDNA library after tobacco topping.ScientiaAgriculturaSinica. 44(7): 1331-1337.
Reed, T.D. Johnson, C.S. Semtner, P.J. and Wilkinson, C.A. 2012.Flue-cured tobacco production guide. In cooperation with the Virginia Bright Flue-Cured Tobacco Board. Pp: 140.
Roton, C. Wiernik, A., Wahlberg, I. and Vidal, B, 2005. Factors influencing the formation of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in french air-cured tobaccos in trials and at the farm level. BeitragezurTabakforschung International/Contributions to Tobacco Research. 21: 305-320.
Sazgar, P. 1991. General chemistry of tobacco.Tirtash Tobacco Research Institute. pp. 42-50.
Singh, K.D., Tripathi, S.N. and Pandeya, A.K, 2000. Influence of topping on yield, physical leaf quality parameters and economic return in chewing tobacco. Tobacco Research. 1999. P: 61.
Stocks, G.R. 1991.Lower leaf harvesting options and leaf position effects on some agronomic, chemical and mineral characteristics of flue-cured tobacco.Ph.D. Thesis, University of Florida.
TRB, 2010. Handbook of recommendation. Tobacco Research Board, Harare
Tso, T.C. 1990. Production, Physiology and Biochemistry of Tobacco Plants. IDEALS, Inc., Beltsville, MA.
UN - Zimbabwe, 2010. Reviewing the Zimbabwean economy.
Wang, T., Wang, S., Kang, X., Tang, J., Wei, X., Peng, W. and Guan G, 2012. Effect of phosphorus and potassium nutrition on nicotine and nutrient accumulation during topping stage of Nicotianatabacum L. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment. 10 (2): 732-740.
Wolf, F.A. and Gross, P.M. 1937. A comparative study of structural responses induced by topping and suckering. Bull. Torrey Botan. Club. 64: 117-31.
Zimbabwe Tobacco Association. 2013. History of flue-cured tobacco.
Cite this Article: Marowa P, Mtaita TA, Rukuni D, 2015. Effect of Leaf Priming Removal Level and Fertilization Rate on Yield of Tobacco in Zimbabwe. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 5(1):001-013, http://doi.org/10.15580/GJAS.2015.1.091614361.
Call for Articles/Books/Thesis
Call for Scholarly Articles
Authors from around the world are invited to send scholary articles that suits the scope of this journal. The journal is currently open to submissions and will process and publish articles daily, immediately they are ready.
The journal is centered on quality and goes about its processes in a very timely fashion. Seasoned editors/reviewers will be consulted to review each article(s), profer quality evaluations and polish the articles with expertise before publication.
Use our quick submit button to submit or simply send your article(s) as an e-mail attachment to firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com.
Call for Books
You are also invited to submit your books for online or print publication. We publish books related to all academic subject areas. Submit as an e-mail attachment to firstname.lastname@example.org.