Shiferaw et al
Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Vol. 6 (2), pp. 069-078, February 2016.
ISSN: 2276-7770 © 2016 Greener Journals
Manuscript Number: 011516011
Evaluation of exotic and locally adapted sweetpotato cultivars to major viruses in Ethiopia
Shiferaw Mekonen1*, Berhanu Bekele 2, TesfayeTadesse1 and Fekadu Gurmu1
1Hawassa Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box 06, Hawassa, Ethiopia
2Ambo Plant Protection Research Center, P.O. Box 37, Ambo, Ethiopia
Sweetpotato virus disease (SPVD) is currently threatening sweetpotato production in Ethiopia than ever, with more viruses unidentified earlier being detected in more recent years. Due to the increased importance of virus diseases, management option using host plant resistance was planned using local cultivars and exotic genotypes for three consecutive years (2011-2013) at Hawassa, Ethiopia. A total of 89 sweetpotato introductions from international sources, and clones of 26 locally adapted cultivars were used for this study. The materials were evaluated at three stages of screening under natural infection, where Hawassa is selected as hotspot area for sweetpotato viruses based on observations made in the previous years. Genotypes were planted in a single row observation plot in preliminary screening, and randomized complete block design (RCBD) in advanced screening. Symptomatology was used to evaluate the reaction of genotypes in the field and supplemented by three times serological testing (NCM-ELISA) during each experiment using a battery of 10 antibodies against the common viruses known to infect sweet potato. The results of laboratory analysis have ascertained the occurrence of six new viruses not reported to exist in Ethiopia before, viz. C-6 virus, Sweetpotato caulimo-like virus (SPCaLV), Sweetpotato chlorotic flecks virus (SPCFV), Sweetpotato mild speckling virus (SPMSV), Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) and Sweetpotato latent virus (SwPLV). All of the newly identified viruses were detected on exotic sweet potatoes obtained from international sources, suggesting the possibility of their introductions along with the planting materials and hence the need of establishing strong quarantine inspection. Among 25 genotypes evaluated in advanced screening, 14 genotypes (13 from exotic sources and one local) were apparently virus free. These materials need be tested at multi-locations for further use in improvement programs. Highly significant difference (p< 0.01) was observed for virus disease severity and storage root yield among sweetpotato genotypes indicating the possibility of selection for resistant /tolerant/ clones against sweetpotato virus disease (SPVD). Use of vines from infected fields of sweetpotato resulted in the decline in yield and stand establishment across years. Within virus susceptible genotypes, 47.8% – 92.6% yield reduction was witnessed in the third year of the experimental period. Similarly out of planting materials used from infected plots, 75-85 % of the vines showed poor establishment when compared to vines taken from virus free plots. This signifies the importance of periodically renewing planting materials from virus free sources.
Key words: Host plant resistance, screening, serological test, virus free planting material, stand establishment.
Abraham , A. (2010). Associated viruses threatening sweetpotato improvement and production Ethiopia Africa crop science journal 18: 207– 213.
Ames, T., Smit A. R., Braun, J.N., Sullivan. O. and Sokglm L.G. (1997). Major Sweet potato: Major pests, diseases, and nutritional disorders international potato center CIP, Lima, Peru. August, 1997.
Aritua, V. Adipala, E. Carey E.E. and Gibson R.W. (1998).The incidence of sweetpotato virus disease and virus resistance of sweetpotato grown in Uganda. Ann. of Applied Biol. 132: 399–411. Netherlands journal of plant pathology.Volume 90. Issue 4.PP.155-164.
Tofu, A., Teshome, A., Engida,T. and Tesfaye, T. (2007). Summary of Progress on Orange-Fleshed Sweetpotato Research and Development in Ethiopia. Proceedings of the 13th ISTRC Symposium. pp. 728–731.
CSA. 2013 Agricultural sample survey 2012/2013. Report on area and production of major crops. Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, (2013), pp. 121.
CSA. 2012. Agricultural sample survey 2011/2012. Report on area and production of major crops. Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, (2012), pp. 143.
FAO (2001). FAO Production Year Book, Basic Data Unit, Statistics Division, FAO, Rome, Italy, (2001),Vol. 53, pp. 95.
Gibson, R.W., Alicai T., Carey E.E., Seal S.E., Vetten H.J., (1998). Symptoms, etiology and serological analysis of sweetpotato virus disease in Uganda. Plant Pathology.47, 95-102.
Gutierrez, DL, Fuentes S. and Salazar LF. (2003). Sweetpotato Virus Disease (SPVD): Distribution, Incidence and effect on Sweetpotato yield in Peru. Plants Disease 87:297-302.
Hall, M.R.and Harmon, S.A., (1989). Coastal red sweet potato. Hort.Sci.24:196-177.
Kapinga, R., Ortiz, O., Ndunguru J., Omiat, E. and Tumwegamire, S. (2007). Hand book of Sweetpotato Integrated Crop Management: Research Outputs and Programs for East Africa. International Potato Center (CIP). Uganda
Luisa, H. and Robert, J. H. (2000). A Geographical -Referenced Database of Global Sweetpotato Distribution eds. In: Production Systems and Natural Resource Management Department International Potato Center (CIP). Working Paper No. 4.pp. 1-42.
Maule, A.J. Caranta, C. and Boulton, MT. (2007). Sources of natural resistance to plant virus: status and prospects. Mol ocular plant pathology.223-231
Mesfin, T. Wondirad, M. and Bekele, K. ( 2007). Review of Research on Diseases of Root and Tuber Crops in Ethiopia In. Abraham. T,, eds: Increasing Crop Production through Improved Plant Protection Volume II. Plant Protection Society of Ethiopia (PPSE). Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Volume II. pp. 169-202.
Miano, D., Labonte D, Clark C. (2008). Identification of molecular markers associated with sweetpotato resistance to sweetpotato virus disease in Kenya. Euphytica 160:15-24.
Njeru, R.W., Mburu M.W., Cheramgoi E. Gibson R.W., Obudho E. and Yobera D. (2004). Studies on the physiological effects of viruses on sweetpotato yield in Kenya. Annals of Applied Biology. 145: 71-76
Qaim, M. (1999). The Economic Effects of Genetically Modified Orphan Commodities: Projections for Sweetpotato in Kenya. ISAAA brief No. 13 – 19.
Opiyo, S.A., Ateka E.M., Owuor P.O. Manguro L.O.A. and Karuri H.W. (2010). Survey of Sweet Virus in Western Kenya and Detection of Cucumber Mosaic Virus. Journal of Plant Pathology. 92 (3), 797-801.
Regina, K., Oscar, O., Joseph, N., Emmanuel, O. and Silver T. (2007). Handbook of Sweetpotato Integrated Crop Management Research Outputs and Programs for East Africa (1995-2006) International Potato Center (CIP), ISBN: 978-92-9060-323-8.
Shiferaw Mekonen, Fikre.H., Fekadu. G., Elias U., (2014). Sweetpotato Diseases Research in Ethiopia. International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research Volume 2, Issue 6, pp.933-938. ISSN 2319-1473.
Souto, E.R., Sim J., Valverde R.A. and Clark C.A. (2003). Properties of strains of sweetpotato feathery mottle virus and two newly recognized poty viruses infecting sweetpotato in the United States. Plant Disease 87: 1226-1232
SPL (Scientific Phytopathological Laboratory). (1986). Progress Report for the Period 1985/86, pp. 252-259. Ambo, Ethiopia.
Stephan, N., Hussein, S., Julia, S. and Kido M. (2013). Review of Sweetpotato breeding for resistance to sweetpotato virus disease and improved yield: Progress and challenges. African Journal of Agricultural. Vol. 8(25), pp. 3202-3215.
Tamru, A. 2004. Characterization of viruses of hot pepper (Capsicum spp.) and sweetpotato (Ipomeabatatas) From Ethiopia. Doctorial dissertation. University of Bonn, pp. 126.
Tesfaye, T., Fikre, H. and Mesele, G. (2013). Prevalence, incidence and distribution of sweet potato virus: Its effect on the yield of sweetpotato in Southern Region of Ethiopia. International Journal of Science and research Volume II. Issue 1. PP.591-595.
Tewodros, T., Tielye, F. and Adane A.( 2011). Survey and serological detection of sweetpotato Ipomoebatatas (L) Lam.) Viruses in Ethiopia, journal of Applied Biosciences, vol. 41, pp. 2746 -2756, ISSN 1997-5902.
Valverde, R.A., Clark, C.A. and Valkonen JPT (2007).Viruses and virus disease, complexes of sweet potato. Plant Virus. 1:116-126.
Van Den Bosch, F., Jeger, M. and Gilligan, C. (2007). Disease control and its selection for damaging plant virus strains in vegetative propagated staple food crops. Proc. Royal Soc. B: Biol. Sci. 274:11.