Obun et al
Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 3 (1), pp.048-054, January 2013
Health and Carcass implications of dietary inclusion of graded level of sun-cured Neem (Azadirachta indica, A. juss) leaf meal for broilers
1*Obun, C. O., 2Ukim, C. I., 3Olatunji, E. A. and 4Kehinde, A. S
1Department of Animal production, Federal College of wildlife management, New Bussa,
2 Nigerian Institute of Animal Science, Salt Lake Street, Maitama, Abuja
3Department of Animal Science, University of Abuja, Abuja
Corresponding Author’s Email: obunotu @ yahoo.com, Phone (+234)8032452529
The effects of feeding graded levels (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%)
of Neem leaf meals (NM) to broiler chicks on live weights,
carcass and organ weights and blood constituents was
investigated. Two hundred and forty (240) 7 days-old unsex
broiler chicks (Arbor acres) were randomly allocated to five
treatments of 48 birds each, replicated four times with 12
birds each in a completely randomized design. Feed and water
were given ad-libitum till 56 days. The results of the live
weights and carcass and organ weights decreased with
increased NM inclusion in the diets. Haematological
constituents were not affected (P>0.05) except the packed
cell volume while the serum biochemical indices of birds fed
20 % NM diets were decreased (P<0.05) compared with those
fed control, 5 %, 10% and 15% NM diets. Inclusion of 15% NM
in broiler chicks’ diet had no adverse effects on live,
carcass and organ weights and immunity responses. NM needs
further treatment to improve inclusion levels beyond 15 % in
Keywords: Azadirachta indica, broilers, immunity, carcass and organ weights
Adewetan T A, Onyeanusi A E and Osakwe M E (1980). The study of flora and fauna at the Federal College of Wildlife Management, New Bussa. Unpublished research paper, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, p27.
Akpan M J, Enihi G E, Obasi O L, Solomon I P and Udedibie A B I (2008). Effects f dietary neem(Azadirachta indica) leaf extract on performance of laying hens. In Proc. of the 33rd Ann. Conf. of Nig. Soc. for Anim. Prod. Held at Olabisi Onabanjo Univ., Ayetoro, Ogun State,15th -18th March, 396-398pp.
AOAC (2005). Official Methods of Analysis, 18th Ed., Associa-tion of Official Analytical Chemists. Arlington, VA.
Anyoechie A A and Madubuike F N (2007). Carcass yield and organoleptic parameters in broiler finisher fed maize cob diets supplement with Nutri-zyme. In: Proc.of the 32nd Ann. Conf. of Nig. Soc. for Anim. Prod. (NSAP), Calabar, March, 18-21,16-17.
Biu A A, Yusufu S D and Rabo J S (2009). Studies on the Effects of Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on Haematological Parameters in Chicken .African Scientist, Vol. 10 (4): 189-192.
Broadbent L A, Wilson B J and Fisher C (1981). The composition of broiler chicken at 56 days of age: Output components and chemical composition. British Poultry Science, 22: 4 -10.
Butcher C, Brynard M, Owen E, Leunch J and Machin D H (1983) The effect of dietary metabolizable energy concentrations upon the pre and post weaning performance of growing rabbits, Animal Production, 36:229-236.
Davis M E and Berndt W D (1994). Renal methods for toxicology. In: Hayes, A.W. (eds). Principles and methods of toxicology, 3rd Ed. New York Raven; 871 - 894.
Duncan D B (1955). Multiple range and multiple F-test. Biomet-ric. 11, 1-42.
D’mello J P F and Acamovic T (1989). Leucaena leucocephala in Poultry Nutrition: A review. Animal Feed Science and Technology 26:1-28.
D’mello J P F and Devendra C (1995). Tropical Legumes in Animal Nutrition. Wallingford, CAB International.
Eggum B O (1970). Blood urea measurement as a technique for assessing protein quality. British Journ. Nutri., 24: 983-988.
Esonu B O, Emenalom O O, Udedibie A B I, Herbert U, Ekpor C F, Okoli I C and Ihukwumere F C (2001). Performance and blood chemistry of weaner pigs fed raw Mucuna beans (Velvet bean) meal. Tropical Animal Production Investment; 4:49-54.
Esonu B O, Opara M N, Okoli I C, Obikaonu H O, Udedibie C and Iheshiulor O O M (2006). Physiological responses of laying birds to neem (Azadirachta indica A. juss) leaf meal based diets, body weight, organs characteristics and haematology. Online J. Health Sci., 2: 4. htt//www.ojhas.org/issue18/2006-2-4htm
Houtert M F (1993). The production and metabolism of volatile fatty acids by ruminants fed roughages: A review. Anim. Feed Sci. and Technol., 43: 189-225.
Iheukwumere F C, Ndubuisi E C, Mazi E A and Onyekwere M U (2007). Growth, blood chemistry and carcass yield of broilers fed cassava leaf meal (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Int. J. Poult. Sci. 6:555-559.
Iyayi E A and Tewe O O (1998). Serum total protein, urea and creatinine levels as indices of quality cassava diets for pigs. Tropical Veterinary, 16: 57 – 67.
Kakengi A M V, Kaijage J T, Sarwatt S V, Mutayoba S K, Shem M N and Fujihara T (2007). The effect of Moringa olifera leaf meal as a substitute for sunflower seed meal on performance of laying hens in Tanzania. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 19(8). http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd19/8/kake19120.htm
Kohn R A and Allen M S (1995). Enrichment of proteolytic activity relative to nitrogen in preparations from the rumen for in vitro studies. Animal Feed Science Technology, 52:1-14.
Lale n E S (2002). Bio-activity and Limitation against wide spread use of neem products for the management of insect pests. Nigerian Journal of Applied Biology; 3: 115–124.
Mitruka B M and Rawnsley H M (1977). Clinical biochemical and hematological reference values in normal experimental animals. Masson Publ. Co. New York, 102-117.
Ncube S, Hamudikuwanda H & Saidi P T (2012). Voluntary feed intake and growth of broilers on Acacia angustissima leaf meal based starter and finisher diets, Livestock Research for Rural Development 24 (8) 2012.
Nworgu F C, Egbunike G N, Ononogbu C E, Fapohunda J B and Ogbonna J U (2003). Effect of mimosa (Mimosa invisa) leaf meal supplements on broiler finishers’ performance. Proceedings of the based diet: Body weight, Organ characteristics. In: Proc. of the 8th Annual conference of the Animal Science Association of Nigeria (ASAN), pp: 36-38.
Obikaonu H O, Opara M N, Okoli I C, Okoro V M, Ogbuewu I P, Etuk E B and Udedibie A B I (2012). Haematological and serum biochemical indices of starter broilers fed leaf meal of neem (Azadirachta indica). J of Agric. Techn. 8(1):71-79.
Ogbuewu I .P (2008). Physiological responses of rabbits fed graded levels of neem leaf (Azadirachta indica A. juss) meal. M Sc. Thesis, Federal University of Technology, Owerri.
Ogbuewu I P, Okoli I C and Iloeje M U (2010a). Evaluation of Toxicological Effects of Leaf Meal of an Ethnomedicinal Plant-Neem on Blood Chemistry of Puberal Chinchilla Rabbit Does. Report and Opinion, 2(2):29-34.
Ogbuewu I P, Okoli I C and Iloeje M U (2010b). Evaluation of Toxicological Effects of Leaf Meal of an Ethnomedicinal Plant-Neem on Blood Chemistry of Puberal Chinchilla Rabbit Doe. Report and Opinion; 2(2):54-57.
Ogbuewu I P, Okoli I C and Iloeje M (2011a). Evaluation of dried leaf meal of an ethnomedicinal plant - neem - on linear growths and reproductive tract morphometry of rabbit does. Electronic journal of Environment, Agricultural and Food Chemistry (EJEAFChe), 10(4): 2153-2159.
Ogbuewue I P, Odoemenam V U, Obikaonu H O, Opara O O, Emmenalom M C, Uchebgu I C, Okoli I C, Esonu B O and Lloeje M U (2011b). The growing importance of neem (Azadirachta indica A. juss) in Agriculture, industry, medicine and environment: A Review. Research journal of Medicinal plants.5 (3): 230-245.
Oluyemi J A and Roberts F A (2000). Poultry production in warm-wet climate. Spectrum books Limited. Ibadan, Nigeria, 24-49.
Omole T A and Sonaiya E B (1981). The effect of protein source and methionine supplementation of cassava peels meal supplementation by growing rabbits. Nutrition Reports International; 23(4):779-737.
Onyimonyi A E, Adeyemi O and Okeke G C (2009). Performance and economic characteristics of broilers fed varying dietary levels of neem leaf meal (Azadirachta indica). International Journ. Poult. Sci. 8(3):256-259.
Peters T, Biomont C T and Doumas B T (1982). Protein in serum, urine and cerebrospinal fluid, albumin in serum: In selected methods of clinical chemistry, W.R. Faulkner and S. Meites (eds.) Washington D.C. American Association of Clinical Chemist, Vol 9.
Salsbury J E and Salsbury J G (1962). Manual of poultry diseases. Salsbury laboratories, Charles city, Iowa USA, 24.
Schalm OW, Jain N C and Carrol E J (1975). Veterinary haematology 3rd Edn. Lea and Fabinger, Philadelphia.
Siddiqui S, Tariq M, Bina S S and Shaheem F (1986). Isolation of a triterpenoid from Azadirachta indica. Phytochemistry, 25(9): 2183-2186.
Udedibie A B I and Opara C C (1998). Responses of growing broilers and laying hens to the dietary inclusion of leaf meal from Alchornia cordifolia. Anim. Feed. Sci. Techn. 71: 157- 164.
Call for Articles/Books
Call for Scholarly Articles
Authors from around the world are invited to send scholary articles that suits the scope of this journal. The journal is currently open to submissions and will process and publish articles daily, immediately they are ready.
The journal is centered on quality and goes about its processes in a very timely fashion. Seasoned editors/reviewers will be consulted to review each article(s), profer quality evaluations and polish the articles with expertise before publication.
Use our quick submit button to submit or simply send your article(s) as an e-mail attachment to email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Call for Books
You are also invited to submit your books for online or print publication. We publish books related to all academic subject areas. Submit as an e-mail attachment to email@example.com.