Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences

Open Access


Subscribe to 

our monthly News letters
Click









Gadzirayi and Mupangwa

Greener Journal of  Agricultural Sciences Vol. 4 (1), pp. 015-021, January 2014.

 ISSN: 2276-7770 © 2011 Greener Journals

Research Paper

Manuscript Number: 012914078

 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15580/GJAS.2014.1.012914078


The Nutritive Evaluation and Utilisation of Moringa oleifera Lam in Indigenous and Broiler Chicken Production: A Review

 

C. T. Gadzirayi1* and J. F. Mupangwa2

 

1Bindura University of Science Education, Faculty of Agriculture and Environmental Science,

P. Bag 1020, Bindura, Zimbabwe.

2University of Fort Hare, Department of Livestock & Pasture Science, P. Bag X 1314 Alice Campus, 

Alice 5700, South Africa.

 

 *Corresponding Author’s Email: gadzirayichris @ yahoo. co. uk

Abstract:

There has been a decline in chicken production in most developing countries, yet poultry constitute an important pillar in HIV/AIDS alleviation and act as an income source plus food security in rural communities. The limited availability and high cost of stock feeds that have not increased concomitantly with producer prices are partly responsible for the decline. These limitations are especially important in rural communities because they are resource poor. Farmers therefore enlisted a priority research on alternative feed sources for poultry production since home-grown feeds available to the farmer can sometimes be limited. Maize and sorghum are usually the most abundant sources of grain available, which can supply adequate carbohydrate but not protein. Protein sources are expensive and hence unaffordable to the smallholder farmer. Small holder farmers have been using leaf meals as protein sources in order to alleviate feed limitations in poultry production. One such leaf meal is Moringa oleifera Lam (syns. Moringa pterygosperm, family Moringaceae). The uses of Moringa oleifera have attracted attention of researchers. Preliminary investigation showed that the plant has high biomass production. Its leaves are used as vegetables by humans in central Africa and have a good profile of amino acids that makes it a valuable source of livestock feed.
 
Keywords: Moringa oleifera, nutritive value, utilization, indigenous chicks, broilers.

Reference:


Agricultural Research Council (1999). Five years rolling strategic plan (1999-2004) Agricultural Research Council, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Akinbamijo Y, Nouala  S, Saecker J, Adesina MA, Hoffmann E, Muetzel S, Fuglie L, Becker K (2003). Prospects of Moringa oleifera as a feed resource in the West African Mixed Farming System. “Technological and Institutional Innovations for Sustainable Rural Development”, Gambia, Senegal, West Africa.

Alders R (2005). L’aviculture: Source de profit et de plaisir. Brochure de la FAO sur la diversification, Rome: FAO, 3.

Chakoma C, Franzel S, Hove I, Matimati I and Maarsdorp BV (2004). The adoption of fodder trees in Zimbabwe: Smallholder farmers Experiences and Innovations. Workshop proceedings: May 2002. World Agro forestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi, Kenya.

Daghir NJ (1995). Feedstuffs used in hot regions. In: Poultry production in hot climates. Daghir NJ (ed). 1st edition. CAB International Wallingford UK: 125- 154.

D’Mello JPF (1992). Chemical constraints to the use of tropical legumes in animal nutrition. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 38: 237-261.

D’Mello J P E, T Acamovic, A G Walker (1987).Evaluation of Leuceana leaf meal for broiler growth and pigmentation. Trop. Agric. (Trinidad), 64: 33-35

D’Mello J P (1995). Leguminous leaf meals in non- ruminant nutrition. In: Tropical legumes in animal nutrition. 1st  edition. A.B International, Wallingford Oxon UK. p. 247- 280.

Donkoh A, Atuahene CC, Poku-Prempeh YB, Twnm IG (2002). The nutritive value of chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (Mill.) Johnson) leaf meal: Studies with broiler chickens. Anim. Feed Sci. Tec., (Netherlands) 77: 163-172.

Foidl N, Makkar H P S, Becker K, (2001). The potential of Moringa oleifera for Agricultural and industrial uses, pp45-76: The miracle tree: The multi uses of Moringa (Ed) Lowell J. Fugile, CTA, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Gichohi CM , Maina JG (1992). Poultry production and marketing, Ministry of Livestock Production. Paper presented in Nairobi-Kenya, Nov., 23-27.

Gutteridge RC, Shelton HM (1993). The scope and potential of tree legumes in agroforestry. Agroforestry Systems, 23: 117 – 194.

Haruna U, Hamidu BM (2004). Economic Analysis of Turkey production in the western Agricultural zone of Bauchi State. Proceedings of the 9th Annu. Conf. Anim. Sci. Assoc. Nig. (ASAN) 3: 299-303.

Hove (2000). Influence of season/year and species on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of five Indigofera accessions. Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 136, Issue 3 – 4: 312 – 322.

Kitalyi AJ, Mayer A (1998). Village chicken production systems in rural Africa. Household food security and gender issues. Animal Production and Health Paper 142, FAO : Rome, Italy, pp: 81.

Makkar HPS, Becker K (1996). Nutrientional value and anti-nutritional components of whole and extracted Moringa oleifera leaves. Anim.Feed Sci. Techmol.63: 211-228.

Makkar HPS, Becker K (1999). Plant toxins and detoxification methods to improve feed quality of tropical seeds-Review. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 12(3), 467-480.

Maroyi A (2006). The Utilisation of Moringa oleifera in Zimbabwe: A Sustainable Livelihood Approach. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa 8: 172 – 85.

Maugham PJ, Maroof MAS, Buss GR, Huestis GM (1996). Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) in soy bean. Species diversity, inheritance and near-isogenic line analysis. Theoretical and applied Genetics, 93: 392-401.

Mbugua PN (1990). Rural smallholder poultry production in Kenya. Proceedings: Smallholder rural poultry production—requirements of research and development, 9–13 October (1990). Thessaloniki, Greece, Volume 2: Country reports, 117–131.

Morton JF (1991). The Horseradish tree, Moringa pterygosperma (Moringaceae) - A boon to arid lands. Econ. Bot. 45: 318-333.

Munangi W (2004). Small holder Dairy Sector in Zimbabwe: Proceedings of one day Policy workshop. December 2004, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Mupangwa JF, Ngongoni NT, Topps JH, Hamudikuwanda H (2000). Effects of supplementing a basal diet of Chloris gayana hay with one of three protein-rich legume hays of Cassia rotundifolia, Lablab purpureus and Macroptilium atropurpureum forage on some nutritional parameters in goats. Tropical Animal Health and Production 32 (4): 245 – 256.

Nworgu FC, Fasogbon FO (2007). Centrosoma (Centrosoma pubescens) leaf meal as protein supplement for pullet chicks and growing pullets. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 6: 255-260.

Odunsi AA, Ogunleke MO, Alagbe OS, Ajani TO (2002). Effect of feeding Gliricidia sepium leaf meal on the performance and egg quality of layers. Int. J.Poult. Sci., 1: 26-28.

Omeje SI, Odo BI, Egwu PO (1997). The effects of Centrosema pubescens as leaf meal concentrate for broiler birds. In Book of Abstract of the 22 Annual Conference of NSAP. Held at AbubakarTafawa Balewa University, Bauchi-Nigeria, 136-137.

Palada MC (1996). Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.): A versatile tree crop with horticultural potential in the subtropical United States. Hort. Sci 31: 794–797.

Powel W, Orozco-Castillo C, Chalmers KJ, Provan J, Waugh R (1995). Polymerase Chain  Reaction  based  assays  for  characterisation  of  plant  genetic  resources. Electrophoresis, 16: 1726-1730 Proceedings  of  the  XVII  international  grassland congress, New Zeal.

Ramachandran C, Peter KV, Gopalakrishan PK (1980). Drumsick (M. oleifera): A multipurpose Indian vegetable. Economic Botany 34 (3): 276-283.

Rukayinga S (2004). Farmers Experiences – Chikwaka Dairy Farmers. One day policy dialogue workshop, December 2004, ICRAF, Harare, Zimbabwe. ruminants particularly under tropical conditions. Nutr. Res. Rev. 44: 277-303.

Sarwatt SV, Kapange SS and Kakengi AMV (2002). Substituting sunflower seed cake with Moringa oleifera leaves as supplement goat feed in Tanzania. Agroforetsry Systems 56:241-247.

Scoones I, Melnyk M, Pretty JN (1992). The Hidden Harvest: Wild Foods and Agricultural Systems:A Literature Review and Annotated Bibliography. IIED. Swedish International Development Authority and World Wide Fund for Nature, London and Gland.

Skerman PJ, Cameroon DG, Riveros F (1988). Centrosema spp. In: Tropical Forage Legumes. 2nd edition. FOA Plant Production and Protection Series. No. 2. Skerman P.J (ed). Rome Italy, 237-257.

Sobamiwa O, Akinwale TO (1999). Replacement value of cocoa husk meal for maize in diets of growing pullets. Trop. J. Anim. Sci., 1: 111-116.

Sutherland JP, Folklard GK, Grant WD (1996). Natural coagulation for appropriate water treatment. A Novel Approach, Waterlines 8(4): 30–32.

Udedibie ABI, Opara CC (1998). Responses of growing broilers and laying hens to the dietary inclusion of leaf meal from Alchornia cordifolia. Anim. Feed Sci. Tec., 71: 157-164.