Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences

Open Access


Subscribe to 

our monthly News letters
Click









Getachew

Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7 (1), pp. 019-031, January 2017.

 ISSN: 2276-7770 © 2017 Greener Journals

Research Articles

Manuscript Number: 122616223


(DOI: http://doi.org/10.15580/GJAS.2017.1.122616223)

 

Status of Forest Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Diseases in the Afromontane Rainforest Areas of Ethiopia: A review

 

Sihen Getachew

 

Jimma University, Collage of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Horticulture and Plant Science Department, 

P O Box 307, Jimma, Ethiopia.


Abstract


Ethiopia, as the center of origin for Coffea arabica, hosts a large diversity of germplasm. Besides drastic reduction in the forest cover and low average yield, the crop is attacked by several diseases, among that coffee leaf rust; coffee berry disease and coffee wilt disease are the major fungal diseases contributing to reduced yield in the country. In this article, the main objective is to provide an overview on current status of major forest coffee diseases prevalence and distributions recorded in afromontane rain forest area of Ethiopia; and to indicate the incidence and severity of forest coffee diseases in the forest coffee populations and elucidates some basic management studies and efforts made to manage those diseases occurred over the past 10 years. The incidences of diseases are reviewed based on different research out puts that was conducted in the afromontane rainforests of the southeast (Harenna) and southwest (Bonga, Berhane-Kontir, Yayu) of Ethiopia. CLR incidences in Ethiopia were present in all forest coffee areas with highest between January and March and lows between June and October with incidence varied from 0.36 to 18.5% in Bonga, 1.8 to 49% in Berhane-Kontir, and 11.8 to 62.6% in Yayu forest coffee populations. The corresponding severity ranged from 0.08 - 1.2%, 0.24 - 1.7% and 0.91 - 3.3% whereas the Sporulation Lesion density varied from 0.08 - 1.9, 0.33 - 3.65 and 1.5 - 5.9% in that order. Leaf rust was low (18.5%) in July 2007 and high (62.6%) in January 2008. CBD was present mostly in Bonga (40.0%) and Yayu (26.3%), but less frequent in Harenna (18.6%) and Berhane-Kontir (6.0%). CWD as a recently developed disease in Arabica coffee could be detected ranging from during the dry season of 2012, the incidence ranged respectively from 0 to 15.4%, 7.3 to 37.6%, 0 to 22.3%, and 26.4 to 28.3% in Bonga, Berhane-Kontir, Yayu and Harenna. During the wet season of 2012, the average disease incidence was 11.9, 29.2, 13.2 and 27.7% at the respective forest sites. Significant variation also observed among each coffee tree within a location and season significantly interacted with both location and coffee trees within a location. As researcher indicated in 2010 heterogeneity of forest coffee populations to those diseases in the field under native agro-ecology provides an opportunity to develop resistant varieties among the enormous forest coffee genetic resources and at the same time calls for strategic multi-site in situ conservation to rescue and maintain the present genetic variation and enhance co-evolutionary processes. From this review, in the case of CBD and CWD selections of tolerant Arabica accessions are being pursued from local landraces in afromountan rain forest areas of Ethiopia that undoubtedly needs detailed research work on screening tolerant variety against to the major diseases.

 

Key Word: Coffea Arbica; Diseases; Ethiopia; Afromontane rainforests; Incidence

Post-review Rundown

View/get involved, click [Post-Review Page]


References


Adugna, G., H. Hindorf, U. Steiner, H.I. Nirenberg, H.W. Dehne and K. Schellander, 2005. Genetic diversity in the coffee wilt pathogen (Gibberella xylarioides) polpulations: Differentiation by host specialization and RAPD analysis. J. Plant Dis. Prot., 112: 134-145.

 

Arega, Z., 2006. Diversity of arabica coffee populations in afromontane rainforests of Ethiopia in relation to Colletotrichum kahawae and Gibberella xylarioides. M.Sc. Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.

 

Arega, Z., F. Assefa, G. Adugna and H. Hindorf , 2009. Occurrence of fungal diseases of Coffea arabica L. in montane rainforests of Ethiopia. Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality 82, 148 – 151

 

Brown, J.S., Kenny, M.K., Whan, J.H. and Marrian, P.R. 1995. The effect of temperature on the development of epidemics of coffee leaf rust in Papua New Guinea. Crop Protection 14 (8): 671-676.

 

CAB International, 2003. Surveys to assess the extent and impact of coffee wilt disease in East and central Africa. Final Technical Report. CABI Regional Centre, Nairobi, Kenya.

 

 Chala Jefuka, Chemeda Fininsa, Girma Adugna and Holger Hindorf. 2010.  Coffee Leaf Rust Epidemics (Hemileia vastatrix) in Montane Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Forests in Southwestern Ethiopia.  East African Journal of Sciences. 4 (2) 86-95.

 

Cook, R.T.A., 1975: Screening coffee plants for resistance to CBD. Annual Report CRF Ruiru/Kenya.

 

Eshetu Derso. 1997. Coffee diseases and their significance in Ethiopia. ASIC 17(I):723-726.

 

Eshetu, D., G. Teame and A. Girma, 2000. Significance of minor diseases of Coffea arabica L. in Ethiopia: A review. Proceedings of the Workshop on Control of Coffee Berry Disease (CBD) in Ethiopia, August 13-15, 1999, Agricultural Research Organization, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pp: 58-65.

 

Girma, A., D. Bieysse and P. Musoli, 2009a. Host-Pathogen Interactions in Coffea-Gibberella xylarioides Pathosystem. In: Coffee Wilt Disease, Flood, J. (Ed.). CAB International, Wallingford, UK., pp: 120-136.

 

Girma, A., M. Abebe, H. Hindorf, Z. Arega, D. Teferi and C. Jefuka, 2009b. Coffee Wilt Disease in Ethiopia. In: Coffee Wilt Disease, Flood, J. (Ed.). CAB International, Wallingford, UK., pp: 50-68.

 

Girma, A. and Mengstu. H. 2000. Cultural characteristics and pathogenicity of Gibberella xylarioides isolates in coffee. Pest Mgt. J. Ethiopia, 4: 11-18.

 

Gole, T.W., M. Denich, D. Teketay and P.L.G. Vlek, 2002. Human Impacts on Coffea arabica Genetic Pool in Ethiopia and The Need For its in situ Conservation. In: Managing Plant Genetic Diversity, Engels, J., V.R. Rao, A.H.D. Brown and M. Jackson (Eds.).

 

Hindorf H. 1998. Current diseases of Coffea arabica and C. canephora in East Africa causing crop losses. Meded Fac Landbouwwet Univ Gent 1998;63:861–5.

 

Holger Hindorf and Chrispine O. Omondi. 2011. A review of three major fungal diseases of Coffea Arabica L. in the rainforests of Ethiopia and progress in breeding for resistance in Kenya. Journal of Advanced Research (2011) 2, 109–120.

 

King’ori, P.N. and Masaba, D.M. 1994. Current status of coffee rust (Hemileia vastatrix) in Kenya. Kenya Coffee 59(697): 1877-1887.

 

Kushalappa, A.C. 1989. Biology and epidemiology. In: Kushalappa, A.C. and Eskes, A.B. (eds.). Coffee Rust: Epidemiology, Resistance and Management; CRC Press Inc., Florida. pp. 13-80.

 

Kufa, T. and  Jurgen B., 2013.  Studies on root growth of Coffea arabica populations and its implication for sustainable management of natural forests. Journal of Agricultural and Crop Research, 1:1-19.

 

Kufa, T. and J. Burkhardt, 2011. Spatial variability in water relations of wild Coffea arabica populations in the montane rainforests of Ethiopia. Ecologia, 1: 31-43.

 

Merdassa, E., 1986. A Review of Coffee Diseases and Their Control in Ethiopia. In: First Ethiopian Crop Protection Symposium, Abate, T. (Ed.). Institute of Agricultural Research, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pp: 187-195.

 

Mesfin, A., 1991. Significance of Ethiopian Coffee Genetic Resources to Coffee Improvement. In: Plant Genetic Resources of Ethiopia, Engels, J.M.M., J.G. Hawkes and M. Worede (Eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp: 354-359.

 

Meseret, W. 1996. Coffee leaf rust epidemiology and management in Ethiopia. PhD Dissertation, Imperial College of Science and Technology, London. pp. 304.

 

Meyer, F.G., 1965. Notes on wild Coffea arabica from southwestern Ethiopia, with some historical considerations. Econ. Bot., 19: 136-151.

 

Paulos, D. and T. Demel, 2000. The need for forest germplasm conservation in Ethiopia and its significance in the control of coffee diseases. Proceedings of the Workshop on Control of Coffee Berry Disease (CBD) in Ethiopia, August 13-15, 1999, Agricultural Research Organization, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pp: 125-135.

 

Rutherford, M.A., D. Bieysse, P. Lepoint and H.M.M. Maraite.  2009. Biology, Taxonomy and Epidemiology of the Coffee Wilt Pathogen Gibberella xylarioides Sensu Lato. In: Coffee Wilt Disease, Flood, J. (Ed.). CAB International, Wallingford, UK., pp: 99-119.

 

Sihen G, Girma A, Fikre L, Hindorf H. 2012. Coffee wilt disease (Gibberella xylarioides Heim and Saccas) in forest coffee systems of southwest and southeast Ethiopia. Plant Pathol. Plant Pathol. J. 11(1):10-17.

 

Sihen G, Girma A, Fikre L, Hindorf H. 2013.  Population structure of Gibberella xylarioides

 

Heim and Saccas in Ethiopian forest coffee  (Coffea arabica L.) systems.  African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 12(33), pp. 5157-5163,

 

Sylvain, P.G., 1958. Ethiopian coffee-its significance to world coffee problems. Econ. Bot., 12: 111-139.

 

Soto-Pinto, L., Perfecto, I. and Caballero-Nieto, J. 2002. Shade over coffee: Its effects on coffee berry borer, leaf rust and spontaneous herbs in Chiapas, Mexico. Agroforestry Systems 55: 37-45.

 

Tadesse, W.G., M. Denich, F. Gatzweiler, B. Girma and T. Demel, 2008. In situ Conservation of Genetic Resources of Wild Arabica Coffee in Montane Rainforests of Ethiopia. In: Coffee Diversity and Knowledge, Adugna, G., B.

 

Bellachew, T. Shimber, E. Taye and T. Kufa (Eds.). Agricultural Research Organization, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pp: 29-34.

 

Tesfaye, K., 2006. Genetic diversity of wild Coffea arabica populations in Ethiopia as a contribution to conservation and use planning. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

 

Van der Graaff, N.A., 1981. Selection of Arabica Coffee Types Resistant to Coffee Berry Disease in Ethiopia. Mededelingen Londbovwhogeschola, Wageningen, Page: 110.

 

Wrigley G., 1988. Coffee. Tropical Agriculture Series, Longman Science and Techinology, New York.

 

Waller, J.M., Bridge, P.D., Black, R. and Hakizal, G. 199). Characterization of the coffee berry disease pathogen, Colletotrichum kahawae Sp. Nov. Mycol. Res. 97: 989-994.

 

Wrigley, G.1988. Coffee. Tropical agriculture series. Longman Scientific and Technical Publisher, New York. pp 342-344.

 

Wondimu, M., 1991: Epidemiology and resistance of coffee leaf rust in Ethiopia. Ministry of Coffee and Tea Development. Addis Ababa/ Ethiopia.