Tilahun and Kifle
Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 5 (3), pp. 076-083, June 2015.
Manuscript Number: 030150939
Determination of Critical Period of Weed-Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Competition at Kaffa, Southwest Ethiopia
1Tilahun Mola and 2*Kifle Belachew
1 South Agricultural Research Institute, Bonga Agricultural Research Center, P.O. box 101, Bonga Kaffa, Ethiopia,
E-mail: Ot023@ yahoo. com
2 Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Jimma Agricultural Research Center, P.O.Box 192, Jimma, Ethiopia,
E-mail: kiflekef@ gmail. com
Field experiment was conducted to determine the critical period of weed control in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) at Bonga Agricultural Research Center, Kaffa zone, Southwestern Ethiopia in 2013/14 cropping season. Two common bean varieties; ‘AFR-702’ and ‘Awassa-dume’ were used with two sets of treatments using a randomized complete block design with three replications. In the first set of treatment; the crop was kept weed free until 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 days after crop emergence (DAE). In the second set; weeds were permitted to grow with in the crop until 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 DAE. Weedy, weed free, farmers practice and recommended practice were also included in the treatments as control and standard checks.
The weed interference durations affected significantly yield and yield components of both tested common bean varieties. The minimum value of bean yield was observed under the full season weed infestation condition (7.86 q/h) and (6.29 q/h) for AFR-702 and Awassa-dume verities respectively. The maximum value of bean yield was recorded from weed free control (29.84 q/ha) and (27.2 q/h) for AFR-702 and Awasa-dume varieties respectively. This research result indicated that dry bean yield, 100 seed weights, pod per plant and plant height declined steadily as the duration of weed competition increased. Weed infested conditions for the entire growing season led to common bean yield loss of 73.65% and 76.88% for variety AFR-702 and Awassa-dume compared to full-season weed-free treatments respectively.
From this experiment, it is possible to conclude that the critical period of weed competition period for common bean varieties Awassa Dume and AFR-702 lasted when competition exceeds 30 DACE. There for controlling weeds from 10-30 days after crop emergence highly reduce crop weed competition and gives higher bean yield in Kaffa zone of Southwest Ethiopia and similar agroecologies.
Key words: competition, common bean, critical period, weeds, yield, yield loss.
Abraham Tadesse, Rezene Fessehaie and Kedir Nesro (2008). Review of weed research in high lands and lowland pulses volume 1. Abraham Tadesse (ed), Proceedings of the 14th annual conference of plant protection society of Ethiopia (PPSE). Pp 133-165. Date 19-22 December 2006, PPSE and EIAR, Addis Abeba, Ethiopia.
Al-Thahabi SA, Yasin JZ, Abu-Irmaileh BE, Haddad NI, Saxena MC. (1994). Effect of weed removal on productivity of chickpea and lentil in a Mediterranean environment. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 5, 333-341.
Amare, (1987). Haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties performance and recommended methods of production. pp. 229-251 In: Proceedings of the 19th National Crop Improvement Conference, Institute of Agricultural Research, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Ayele, H. (1991). Importance of haricot bean export to the Ethiopian economy. pp 31- 34 In: Research on haricot bean in Ethiopia: an assessment of status, progress, priorities and strategies, 1-3 October, 1990. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Central agricultural census commission (CACC) (2002). Ethiopian agricultural sample Enumeration, 2001/2002: report on the primary result of area, production and yield of temporary crops (Meher season private peasant holding) part 1. Addis Abeba.
Chernet, T. (2008). Land Resources and Socio-Economic Report of Bonga, Boginda, Mankira and the Surrounding Areas in Kaffa Zone, SNNPRS, Ethiopia [WWW document]. URL http://www.kafabiosphere. com/assets/content-documents/KafaLand-use-Survey- Final-Report.pdf [accessed on 13 January 2015].
EASE (Ethiopian Agricultural Sample Enumeration) (2003). Statistical report on area and production of crops results for SNNPR. Pp. 519. Part 2, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Fathi AOE, Khalaf AS, Salim NM. (2010). Influence of tillage and weed management methods on chickpea yield and yield components, Plakistan Journal of weed Science 16(2), 189-198.
Hall, M.R., C.J. Swanton and G.W. Anderson, (1992). The critical period of weed control in grain corn (Zea mays). Weed Sci., 40: 441–447.
Hamzei, J., A.D.M. Nasab, F.R. Khoie, A. Javanshir and M. Moghaddam, (2007) Critical period for weed control in three oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars. Turky J. Agric. For., 31: 83–90.
Kavaliauskaite, D. and C. Bobinas, (2006). Determination of weed competition critical period in red beet. Agron. Res., 4: 217–220.
Kidane, G. (1987). A review of bean agronomy research in semi-arid regions of Ethiopia. Pp 174-180 In: Proceedings of bean research in Eastern Africa. Mukono, Uganda, 22-25 June 1987.
Knezevic SZ, Horak MJ, Vanderlip RL. (1997). Relative time of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) emergence is critical in pigweed–sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) competition. Weed Science 45, 502–508.
Knezevic, S.Z., S.P. Evans, E.E. Blankenship, R.C. Van Acker and J.L. Lindquist, (2002). Critical period for weed control: The concept and data analysis. Weed Sci., 50: 773–786.
Kropff, M.J., Lotz, L.A.P., Weaver, S.E. (1993). Practical applications modeling crop-weed interactions. In: KROPFF, M.J.; VAN LAAR, H.H. (Eds.). Wallingford, UK. CAB International, 1993. p.149-167.
Oad, F.C., M.H. Siddiqui and U.A. Buriro, (2007). Growth and yield losses in wheat due to different weed densities. Asian J. Plant Sci., 6: 173–176
Rashid A, Khan R, Marwat S. (2009). Importance of weed contrl in chickpea under rainfed condition, American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environment Science 5(4), 456-459.
Rezene Fessehaie and Kedir Nesro. (2008). Review of weed research in high lands and lowland pulses volume 1. Abraham Tadesse (ed), Proceedings of the 14th annual conference of plant protection society of Ethiopia (PPSE). Pp 123-133. Date 19-22 December 2006, PPSE and EIAR, Addis Abeba, Ethiopia.
SAS Inst., (2000). Statistical Analysis Systems Institute Inc. Version 9. Cary, North Carolina.
Seem, J.E., N.G. Cramer and D.V. Monks, 2003. Critical weed-free period for ‘Beauregard’ sweet potato (Ipomea batatas). Weed Technol., 17: 686–695
Shuaib, O.S.B., 2002. Critical period for weed competition in onions (Allium cepa L.). University Aden J. Appl. Sci., 5: 355–360.
Tepe I, Erman M, Yergin R, Bukun B. 2011. Critical period of weed control in chickpea under non-irrigated conditions, Turk Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 35, 525-534.
Tilahun tedious. 1998. Weed competition study on haricot bean in the sub-humid zone of jimma. Arem: pp 61-68.
WBISPP, 2001. SNNPRS - a strategic plan for the sustainable development, conservation, and management of the woody biomass resources, final report, Addis Abeba biology, 12; 318-320
Williams II, M.M., 2006. Planting date influences critical period of weed control in sweet corn. Weed Sci., 54: 928–933.
Call for Articles/Books
Call for Scholarly Articles
Authors from around the world are invited to send scholary articles that suits the scope of this journal. The journal is currently open to submissions and will process and publish articles daily, immediately they are ready.
The journal is centered on quality and goes about its processes in a very timely fashion. Seasoned editors/reviewers will be consulted to review each article(s), profer quality evaluations and polish the articles with expertise before publication.
Use our quick submit button to submit or simply send your article(s) as an e-mail attachment to firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com.
Call for Books
You are also invited to submit your books for online or print publication. We publish books related to all academic subject areas. Submit as an e-mail attachment to firstname.lastname@example.org.