Tilahun and Kifle
Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 5 (3), pp. 076-083, June 2015.
Manuscript Number: 030150939
Determination of Critical Period of Weed-Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Competition at Kaffa, Southwest Ethiopia
1Tilahun Mola and 2*Kifle Belachew
1 South Agricultural Research Institute, Bonga Agricultural Research Center, P.O. box 101, Bonga Kaffa, Ethiopia,
E-mail: Ot023@ yahoo. com
2 Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Jimma Agricultural Research Center, P.O.Box 192, Jimma, Ethiopia,
E-mail: kiflekef@ gmail. com
Field experiment was conducted to determine the critical period of weed control in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) at Bonga Agricultural Research Center, Kaffa zone, Southwestern Ethiopia in 2013/14 cropping season. Two common bean varieties; ‘AFR-702’ and ‘Awassa-dume’ were used with two sets of treatments using a randomized complete block design with three replications. In the first set of treatment; the crop was kept weed free until 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 days after crop emergence (DAE). In the second set; weeds were permitted to grow with in the crop until 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 DAE. Weedy, weed free, farmers practice and recommended practice were also included in the treatments as control and standard checks.
The weed interference durations affected significantly yield and yield components of both tested common bean varieties. The minimum value of bean yield was observed under the full season weed infestation condition (7.86 q/h) and (6.29 q/h) for AFR-702 and Awassa-dume verities respectively. The maximum value of bean yield was recorded from weed free control (29.84 q/ha) and (27.2 q/h) for AFR-702 and Awasa-dume varieties respectively. This research result indicated that dry bean yield, 100 seed weights, pod per plant and plant height declined steadily as the duration of weed competition increased. Weed infested conditions for the entire growing season led to common bean yield loss of 73.65% and 76.88% for variety AFR-702 and Awassa-dume compared to full-season weed-free treatments respectively.
From this experiment, it is possible to conclude that the critical period of weed competition period for common bean varieties Awassa Dume and AFR-702 lasted when competition exceeds 30 DACE. There for controlling weeds from 10-30 days after crop emergence highly reduce crop weed competition and gives higher bean yield in Kaffa zone of Southwest Ethiopia and similar agroecologies.
Key words: competition, common bean, critical period, weeds, yield, yield loss.
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