Fakuta et al
Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7 (4), pp. 082-089, June 2017.
Manuscript Number: 031017034
Estimation of Heterosis for Seedling Growth Traits in Gum Arabic Acacia senegal [L.] Wild
Fakuta NM1, Aba DA2, Ado SG2, Usman IS2, and Ojiekpon IF1
1Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, Gum Arabic Sub-Station, Gashua, Nigeria.
2Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute for Agriculture Research, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
Aiming at estimating heterosis and identifying superior Acacia senegal hybrids, six provenances were selected based on their divergence in gum zinc and manganese concentration and were crossed using in 6 x 6 half diallel mating scheme to produce 15 F1 hybrids. The experiment was conducted in the nursery in Gashua in 2014 and 2015 in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) replicated three times. Percentage mid-provenance and better- provenance heterosis was estimated for seedling growth traits. Molai x Gajiram1 revealed maximum negative mid-provenance (-71.04%) and better- provenance (-77.17%) heterosis for days to emergence and desirable positive better-provenance heterosis (22.62%) for canopy diameter. Also Gajiram1 x Molai showed maximum positive mid-provenance heterosis (125.11%) for number of primary branches while Kukareta x Molai had maximum positive better-provenance heterosis (88.27%) for the trait. Damaturu x Molai exhibited highest positive heterosis over mid-provenance (65.15%) and better-provenance (47.30%) for bark thickness. No significant positive heterosis was observed for seedling height, stem height at first branching and stem diameter at both levels. The hybrids Gajiram1 x Molai, Kukareta x Molai and Damaturu x Molai could be used for future breeding program.
Key Words: Gum arabic; Acacia senegal; Provenance; Heterosis; Seedling growth trait.
Anders, R., Lars, G. and Lambart, G.O. (2003) Evaluation of provenance trial of Acacia senegal at Gonse Burkina Faso. Trial No. 12 in the Arid Zone Series, Danida Forest Seed Centre, Denmark and Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, No. 5: 1- 41
Amiri-Oghan, H., Fotokian, M. H., Javidfa, F. and Alizadeh, B. (2009). Genetic analysis of grain yield, days to flowering and maturity in oilseed rape (B. napus L.) using diallel crosses. International Journal of Plant production, 3(2):19-26
Anderson, D. M.W. (1995). Gums-Ancient and modern commercial products. NFT Highlights NFTA 95-01, Winrock International, Arkansas, USA
Bradshaw, H.D. and Stettler, R. F. (1995). Molecular genetics of growth and development in Populus. IV. Mapping QTLs with large effects on growth, form and phenology traits in a forest tree. Genetics,139: 963-973
Cappa, E. P., Martín-Marcó, D., Nikles, G. and Ian, S. (2013) Last performance of Pinus elliottii, Pinus caribaea, their F1, F2 and backcross hybrids and Pinus taeda to 10 years in the Mesopotamia region, Argentina. New Forest, 44:197–218
Dondain, G. and Phillips, G. O. (1999). The regulatory journey of gum arabic. Journal of Foods and Food Ingredients, 179: 38-56.
Dorthe, J. (2000). Acacia senegal (L) Willd seed leaflet. Danida Forest Seed Center, Denmark. No. 5:1-2.
Duke, J. A. (1981). Handbook of Legumes of World Economic Importance. Plenum Press, New York. pp. 338-344
Emanuel, L., and Eli, T. (1995). Performance of Avocado (Persea Americana Mill.) and Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Seedlings Compared with Their Grafted Trees. Journal of American Society of Horticultural Science, 120 (2): 265-269.
Fagg, C.W. and Allison, G. E. (2004). Acacia senegal (L.) Willd and the gum arabic trade. Oxford Institute Tropical Forest Papers, 42: 6-8.
FAO (1990). Specification for identity and purity of certain food additives, Food and Nutrition paper No.52 (Addendum 7), FAO, Rome. 49: 23.
FAO (1997). Food and Nutrition. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation, Rome 52:5.
Fakuta, N. M., Kadams, A. M., Ojiekpon, I. F., Abubakar, M. and Jatto, M. I. (2011). Heterosis and combining ability of F1 hybrid in provenance populations of gum arabic (Acacia senegal (L.) Willd). ChemTech Journal, 7:139-145
Ijaz, R., Abdulsalam, K. and Zulfiqar, A. (2002). Estimation of heterosis for yield and some yield components in bread wheat. International Journal of agriculture and Biology, 4 (2):214–216.
Jamal, A. and Huntsinger, L. (1993). Deterioration of a sustainable agro-silvo-pastoral system in the Sudan: the gum gardens of Kordofan. Agroforestry Systems, 23: 23-38.
Johnsen, K. H., Major, J. E., Loo, J. and McPhee, D. (1998). Negative heterosis not apparent in 22-year-old hybrid of Picea maria and Picea rubens. Canadian Journal of Botany, 76: 434-439.
Lavi, U., Tomer, E., Gazit, S. and Hille, J. (1998). Component of the genetic variance and genetic correlations between traits in mango. Scientia Horticulturae, 75: 11-25.
Li, B. and R. Wu. (1996). Genetic cause of heterosis in juvenile aspen: a quantitative comparison across intra- and inter-specific hybrids.Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 93:380-391.
Li, B., Howe, T.G and Wu, R. (1998). Developmental factors responsible for heterosis in aspen hybrids (Populus tremuloides x P. Tremula). Tree Physiology, 18: 29--36
Manley, S.A.M., and Ledig, F.T. (1979). Photosynthesis in black and red spruce and their hybrid derivatives: ecological isolation and hybrid adaptive inferiority. Canadian Journal of Botany, 57: 305-314
Ojiekpon, I. F., Eifediya, E. K., Ogieriakhi, S. N., Oghide, E. A., Fakuta, N. M. and Waizah, Y. (2011). Nursery Management operations for gum Arabic (Acacia senegal) seedling. ChemTech Journal, 7: 171-176
Steel, R.G.D. and Torrie, J. H. (1980). Principles and procedures of statistics: A biometrical approach. 2nd edition, McGraw–Hill, New York, USA, pp.20-90
SAS Institute (2002). SAS/STAT Guide for Personal Computer: version 9.0. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA
Toma, B. (2013). Relationships between stem diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height, crown length, and crown ratio of Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn in the Nigerian Guinea Savanna. African Journal of Biotechnology, 12 (22): 3441-3446
Sukartini, T., Panjisakti, B. and Rudi, H. (2012). Analysis of heterosis and level of dominance in F1 mango (Mangifera indica L.). Journal of Agric. and Biological Science, 7(9):743-749. www.arpnjournals.com
Wynne, J. C., Emery, D.A. and Rice, P. H. (1970). Combining ability estimation in Arachis hypogaea L. II. Field performance of F1 hybrids. Crop Science, 10(6): 713-715
Call for Articles/Books
Call for Scholarly Articles
Authors from around the world are invited to send scholary articles that suits the scope of this journal. The journal is currently open to submissions and will process and publish articles daily, immediately they are ready.
The journal is centered on quality and goes about its processes in a very timely fashion. Seasoned editors/reviewers will be consulted to review each article(s), profer quality evaluations and polish the articles with expertise before publication.
Use our quick submit button to submit or simply send your article(s) as an e-mail attachment to firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com.
Call for Books
You are also invited to submit your books for online or print publication. We publish books related to all academic subject areas. Submit as an e-mail attachment to firstname.lastname@example.org.