Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences

Excellence and Timeliness


Change Language

Ikuli et al

Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7 (4), pp. 105-111, June 2017.

 ISSN: 2276-7770 

Research Article

Manuscript Number: 061117073



Comparative Study of some Cultivars of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) for Iron Fe Biofortification under Saline Condition


1*Ikuli Josiah M., 1Akonye Love A. and 2Efisue Andrew A.


1*Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Port Harcourt.

1Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Port Harcourt.

2Crop and Soil Science Department, University of Port Harcourt.


Rice is a stable food crop in Nigeria and greater percentage of the world. Rice is an important cereal crop of the world and nutritionally potential food crop. Iron plays a vital role in human life. Such as in production of red blood cells, transportation of oxygen around the body, strong immune system and a component structure of the human haemoglobin. It is also involved in the conversion of blood sugar to energy. The study screened some cultivars of Oryza sativa for their abilities to retain Iron (Fe), their response to Fe biofortification and their adaptabilities and tolerance capacities for Fe biofortification under saline condition. Five (5) cultivars of lowland rice namely; FARO 44, UPIA 3, FARO 52, FARO 57 and IWA 4 were used for this study. One hundred (100µg) of Fe from FeNH4.(SO4).12H2O was applied through foliar application. The Fe increase available for human body use was comparatively higher in the fortified than unfortified treatment, especially those planted in the non saline treated soil. Under saline condition, the Fe increase in fortified FARO 44 was less than in the unfortified by approximately nine percent (9.29%). UPIA 3 was higher by 20.48%, FARO 52 higher by 14.43%, FARO 57 higher by 22.83% and IWA 4 was higher by 27.08%. In the non saline fortified, FARO 44 was higher than the unfortified by 71.9%, UPIA 3 by 20.26%, FARO 52 by 30.71%, FARO 57 was higher by 217.21% and IWA 4 increased by 6.95%.  The study revealed that FARO 57 was more sensitive to salinity in Fe biofortification and UPIA 3 was more suitable for Fe biofortification under saline condition among the cultivars used for the study. UPIA 3 is the best because it was more stable in both saline and non saline, fortified and unfortified conditions, high yielding and was not infected or being susceptible to any disease. The study also showed that FARO 57 in non saline soil had the best ability to retain Fe in iron biofortification. But unfortunately, FARO 57 has lodging mechanism that affected its yield.To eliminate micronutrients malnutrition and improve food security, there should be integration of multidiscipline and biofortification employed as a tool to produce cultivars of high yielding and rich in essential nutrients.


Keywords: Fortified saline, Fe solution, Biofortification, rice and cultivars.

Post-review Rundown

View/get involved, click [Post-Review Page]


Anonymous, (2007).Global childhood malnutrition. Lancet 367: 1459.


Anonymous, 2008.The Copenhagen Consensus-Results. P.1-6 (verified 21 Dec. 2009). The Copenhagen Consensus Cent., Fredericksburg, Denmark.


Beard, J L, (2000). Effectiveness and strategies of iron supplementation during pregnancy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71: 1288S- 1294S


Bothwell,T H,(2000) Iron requirements in pregnancy and strategies to meet them. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 72(1): 257S- 264S


Bouis, H. E. and Welch, R. M. (2010).Biofortification- a sustainable agricultural strategy for reducing micro nutrients in the global South. Crop Sc. 50. S20 – S32. Doi: 10.2135/crop sc. 2009.


Fraser, D. M and Cooper, M. A (2003).Myles Textbook for midwives.14th ed. Churchill Livingstone Elsevier Science Limited pg.333.


Hotz, C. and McClafferty, B. (2007).From harvest to health: Challenges for developing biofortified staple foods and determining their impact on micronutrient status. International Food Policy Research Institute, 2033 K Street NW, Washington DC 20006- 1002, USA; email:


John, H.L., Beaton, J. D., Tisdale, S. L. and Nelson, W. L (2006).Soil fertility and fertilizers 7th ed. Prentice-Hall of India private limited, new Delhi-110001 pg 245-254.


Kennedy G., Nantel, G. and Shetty, P.(2003). The scourge of “hidden hunger”. Global dimensions of micronutrients deficiencies. Food Nutr. Agric. 32:8-16


Masuda, H., Kobayashi, T., Ishimaru, Y., Takahashi, M.,Aung. M S.,Nakanishi, H., Mori, S and Nishizawa, N. K, (2008).Increase in iron and zinc concentration in rice grains via the introduction of barley genes involved in phytosiderosphore synthesis. Rice 1, 100-108.


Masuda, H., Kobayashi, T., Ishimaru, Y., Takahashi, M.,Aung. M S.,Nakanishi, H., Mori, S and Nishizawa, N. K, (2013). Iron-biofortification in rice by the introduction of three barley genes participated in mugineic acid biostnthesis with soybean ferritin gene.PLANT SCIENCE doi: 10.3389/fpls.2013.00132


Maziya-Dixon, B. B., Akinyele, I. O., Sanusi, R. A., Oguntona, T. E., Nokoe, S. K. and Harris, E. W. (2006). Vitamin A deficiency is prevalent in children less than 5 years of age in Nigeria. J. Nutr.2006 Aug.136(8) : 2255- 61.


Nelsons and Co Natural world, 2014.Role of Iron in the body. Nelsons and Co Limited, Nelsons House, 83 Parkside, Wimbledon, London SW195LP.


Ortiz-Monasterio, I. J., Palacios- Rojas, N., Meng, E., Pixley, K., Trethrowan, R. and Pena, R. J. (2007). Enhancing the mineral and vitamin content of wheat and maize through plant breeding. J. Cereal sc. 46: 293-307.


Stewarte, A., Max Grimshaw, H., John, A. Parkinson and Christopher, Q., (1974). Chemical Analysis of Ecological Materials.Blackwell Scientific Publications. Oxford London Edinburgh Melbourne


Suzuki, M., Morikawa, K. C., Nakanishi, H., Takahashi, M., Saigusa, M., Mori, S., et al (2008). Transgenic rice lines that include barley genes have increase tolerance to low iron availability in a calcareous paddy soil. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 54,77-85.


U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2011. USDA National Nutrient Database, for Standard Reference, Release 27.Nutrient Data Laboratory Home page.


WHO (World Health Organisation) (1992). The prevalence of anaemia in women: a tabulation of available information, 2ndedn. WHO Geneva


WHO, (1996).Food Security. World Food Summit 1996, Rome, Italy.


WHO and FAO, (2003).Joint WHO/FAO expert consultation on diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. World Health Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland.

Call for Articles/Books

Call for Scholarly Articles

Authors from around the world are invited to send scholary articles that suits the scope of this journal. The journal is currently open to submissions and will process and publish articles daily, immediately they are ready.

The journal is centered on quality and goes about its processes in a very timely fashion. Seasoned editors/reviewers will be consulted to review each article(s), profer quality evaluations and polish the articles with expertise before publication.

Use our quick submit button to submit or simply send your article(s) as an e-mail attachment to or

Call for Books

You are also invited to submit your books for online or print publication. We publish books related to all academic subject areas.    Submit as an e-mail attachment to


Login Form

Other Journals