Adiele et al
Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 4 (2), pp. 058-066, March 2014.
Manuscript Number: 1205131015
Management of Short Fallows Using Two Different Cover Crops
Joy G. Adiele*, Lawrence I. Chukwu, Anthony O. Ano and ThankGod N. Echendu
National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike. KM 8 Ikot Ekpene Road, PMB 7006 Umuahia Abia Nigeria.
*Corresponding Author’s Email: joyadiele @ yahoo. com, Phone: 234 (0) 803 868 0437
In Nigeria significant efforts are being made to improve and conserve the soil. In the time past the soil resource base was sustained through long fallows of 10-15 years. Due to population pressure and other conflicting interests on land, fallow period is now between 6 and 12 months. This natural fallow has proved ineffective for the sustenance of soil productivity. The present study compared the soil productivity improvement attribute of three fallow management systems - two leguminous cover crops (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis and Pueraria phaseoloides) seeded on June 2012 and natural fallow dominated by guinea grass (Panicum maximum). Mucuna treatments significantly provided soil cover until six months, while Pueraria provided soil cover for 12 months and reduced weeds compared with Mucuna and the control. However, there were no significant differences in soil physicochemical properties before and after round the year fallow. Therefore, both cover crops could be sown to replace the natural fallow. Mucuna fallow appears to be an effective system for 6 month fallow while Pueraria could provide cover and effectively suppress weeds for 12 months.
Keywords: Root and tuber crops; Legumes; Soil; Short fallow; Conservation.
Adiele, J and Volk, TA, (2011). Developing spring cover crop systems for willow biomass crop establishment. Aspects of Applied Biology 112: 113-119.
Alegre, JC, Meka, RR, Arevalo, LA, Guzman, W, Faminow, MD, (2005). Planted tree fallows for improving land productivity in the humid tropics of Peru. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 110:104–117
Bray, RH and Kurtz, NT, (1945). Determination of total organic and available forms of phosphorus in soils. Soil Sci. 59: 39-45.
Domergues, YR, (1995). Nitrogen fixation by trees in relation to soil nitrogen economy. Fert. Res. 42, 215–230.
DuPont, ST, H Ferris and M Van Horn, (2009). Effects of cover crop quality and quantity on nematode-based soil food webs and nutrient cycling. Applied Soil Ecology 41:157-167.
ESL-USLE, Appendix A: Estimating Soil Loss with the USLE. 2013 . Available online (August 28, 2013) at https://engineering.purdue.edu/mapserve/sedspec/doc/usleapp.doc.
Hiernaux, P, Ayantunde, A, Kalilou, A, Mougin, E, Gerard, B, Baup, F, Grippa, M, Djaby, B, (2009). Trends in productivity of crops, fallow and rangelands in Southwest Niger: Impact of land use, management and variable rainfall. Journal of Hydrology 375 : 65–77.
Ikeorgu, JEG, Okpara, DA, Njoku JC, Chukwu, GO, (2006). Evalution of selected leguminous cover crops for soil fertility regeneration in yam production systems in southern Nigeria. NRCRI Annual Report. p. 47-49.
Ikeorgu, JEG, Okpara, DA, Njoku, JC, Chukwu, GO, (2005). Evalution of selected leguminous cover crops for soil fertility regeneration in yam production systems in southern Nigeria. NRCRI Annual Report. p. 115-118.
Koutika, LS, Hauser, S, Henrot, J, (2001). Soil organic assessment in natural regrowth, pueraria phaseoloides and mucuna pruriens fallow. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 33:1095-1101.
Kort, J, M Collins and D Ditsch, (1998). A review of soil erosion potential associated with biomass crops. Biomass Bioenergy 14:351-359.
Kwesiga, F, Franzel, S, Place, F, Phiri, D, Simwanza, CP, (1999). Sesbania sesban improved fallows in Eastern Zambia: their inception, development and farmer enthusiasm. Agrof. Syst. 47, 49–66.
Lane, LJ, KG Renard, GR Foster, and JM Laflen, (1997). Development and application of modern soil erosion prediction technology: the USDA experience. Eurasian Soil Science 30 (5): 531 – 540.
Langyintuo, SA, Dogbe, W, (2005). Characterizing the constraints for the adoption of a Callopogonium mucunoides improved fallow in rice production systems in northern Ghana. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 110: 78–90.
Maclean, EO, (1965). Exchangeable Acidity in Soils (Titration Methods): In Selected Methods for Soil and Plant Analysis. IITA Manual Series No. 1pp 8-9.
Mendoza-Vega, J and Melling, I, (2005). The influence of land use and fallow period on the properties of two calcareous soils in the humid tropics of southern Mexico. Catena 60: 279–292.
Nunes, AN, de Almeida, AC, Coelho, COA, (2011). Impacts of land use and cover type on runoff and soil erosion in a marginal area of Portugal. Applied Geography 31: 687-699.
Ramos EM, Benitez E, Garcia PA, Robles AB, (2010). Cover crops under different managements vs. frequent tillage in almond orchards in semiarid conditions: Effects on soil quality. Applied Soil Ecology 44:6-14.
Schlecht, E, Hiernaux, P, Achard, F, Turner, MD, (2004). Livestock related nutrient budgets within village territories in western Niger. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst. 68:199–211.
Six, J, Feller, C, Denef, K, Ogle, SM, Moraes, JC, Albrecht, A, (2002). Soil organic matter, biota and aggregation in temperateand tropical soils – Effects of no-tillage. Agronomie 22: 755– 775
Soil Survey Staff, (1999). Soil Taxonomy: A basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil suryveys, 2nd ed. Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington DC.
Sturz AV, Christie BR, (2003). Beneficial microbial allelopathies in the root zone: the management of soil quality and plant disease with rhizobacteria. Soil and tillage. 72 (2):107-123.
Tarawali, G, Manyong, VM, Carsky, RJ, Vissoh, PV, Osei-Bonsu, P, Gariba, M, (1999). Adoption of improved fallows in West Africa: lessons from mucuna and stylo case studies. Agrof. Syst. 47, 93–122.
Teasdale, JR, (1998). Cover crops, smother plants, and weed management: integrated weed and soil management 247- 270.
Teasdale, JR, Daughtry, CST, (1993). Weed suppression by live and desiccated hairy vetch. Weed Sci. 41:207-212.
Tian, G, Kolawole, GO, Salako, FK, Kang, BT, (1999). An improved cover crop-fallow system for sustainable management of low activity clay soils of the tropics. Soil Sci. 164:671–682.
United States Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service. (2012). Farming in the 21st Century a practical approach to improve Soil Health. Available online (August 21, 2013) at http://soils.usda.gov/sqi/management/files/21st_century_soil_health_factsheet.pdf
Walkley, A and Black, IA, (1934). An
Examination of the Degtjareff Method for determining soil organic matter and
proposed modification of the chromic acid
and titration method. Soil Science 37: 29-38.
USDA – Agricultural Research Service, Washington D.C. 2003. Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation Version 2 user guide. Available online (August 28, 2013) at http://fargo.nserl.purdue.edu/rusle2_dataweb/userguide/RUSLE2-2-3-03.pdf.
Soil Survey Manual available on the Internet site
Call for Articles/Books
Call for Scholarly Articles
Authors from around the world are invited to send scholary articles that suits the scope of this journal. The journal is currently open to submissions and will process and publish articles daily, immediately they are ready.
The journal is centered on quality and goes about its processes in a very timely fashion. Seasoned editors/reviewers will be consulted to review each article(s), profer quality evaluations and polish the articles with expertise before publication.
Use our quick submit button to submit or simply send your article(s) as an e-mail attachment to firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com.
Call for Books
You are also invited to submit your books for online or print publication. We publish books related to all academic subject areas. Submit as an e-mail attachment to firstname.lastname@example.org.