Awedem et al
Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 5 (2), pp. 052-061, March 2015.
Manuscript Number: 012115009
Nutritive Value of three varieties of banana and plantain blossoms from Cameroon
Awedem Wobiwo Florenta1, Achu Mercy Bih Loha2 and Happi Emaga Thomasbc*
a Laboratory for Food Science and Metabolism, Department of Biochemistry, University of Yaoundé I, P. O. Box 812 Yaoundé, Cameroon.
b Post harvest Technology Laboratory, African Research Centre on Bananas and Plantains (CARBAP), Njombé, P. O. Box 832 Douala, Cameroon.
c Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Department of Industrial Biological Chemistry,
Passage des Déportés, 2, B-5030 Gembloux, Belgium.
1Email: wawedem @ yahoo.com; phone: 0032 485 97 87 09,
2Email: mercyabih @ gmail.com; phone: 00 237 77 98 98 51
*Corresponding Author’s Email: guythappi @yahoo. fr; phone: 00 237 99 47 19 95
Background: The by-products of banana and plantain shrubs, especially banana blossom (banana male bud) are usually thrown away by producers in plantations, and produce important quantities of post harvest waste. The nutritional composition of three varieties of banana and plantain blossoms grown in Cameroon; dessert banana (Musa AAA), plantain (Musa AAB) and cooking banana (Musa ABB), was assessed for their potential applications.
Methods: The contents in water, ash, lipids, protids, carbohydrates and crude fibres were determined using standard A.O.A.C methods. The sugar levels were assayed using colorimetric methods, dietary fibres by enzymatic digestion, amino acids by HPLC, fatty acids by gas chromatography and minerals by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
Results: The results showed that the water content varies from 92.29 (AAA) to 93.73 % F.W. (AAB). The ash content varies from 9.88 (AAB) to 12.25 % D.W. (AAA). The lipid content varies from 4.95 (AAA) to 15.69 % D.W. (ABB) and contains polyunsaturated fatty acids (33.80 - 41.50 g/100g FM), particularly linoleic and gamma linolenic acids. The total protein content varies from 8.89 (AAB) to 10.35 % D.W. (AAA). Leucine, phenylalanine + tyrosine, valine, lysine and threonine are the main essential amino acids (2.75 - 3.30 %). The total carbohydrate content varies from 22.36 (AAA) to 62.19 % D.W. (AAB) and glucose, fructose and sucrose are dominant in the AAB genotype with values of (8.15; 3.04 and 1.35 % respectively). The AAA genotype is rich in total dietary fibres (50.09 %). These banana and plantain flowers are rich in macrominerals. Potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus levels are high in the AAA genotype, with values of (6480; 687; 273; 211 mg/100g D.W., respectively).
Conclusions: These blossoms could be considered as a source of dietary fibres for the control of obesity and diabetes. Further investigations on the composition and the physiological functions (using animal-feeding experiments) of these dietary fibres are to be considered.
Key words: banana and plantain blossoms, nutritive value, varieties.
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