Awedem et al
Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 5 (2), pp. 052-061, March 2015.
Manuscript Number: 012115009
Nutritive Value of three varieties of banana and plantain blossoms from Cameroon
Awedem Wobiwo Florenta1, Achu Mercy Bih Loha2 and Happi Emaga Thomasbc*
a Laboratory for Food Science and Metabolism, Department of Biochemistry, University of Yaoundé I, P. O. Box 812 Yaoundé, Cameroon.
b Post harvest Technology Laboratory, African Research Centre on Bananas and Plantains (CARBAP), Njombé, P. O. Box 832 Douala, Cameroon.
c Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Department of Industrial Biological Chemistry,
Passage des Déportés, 2, B-5030 Gembloux, Belgium.
1Email: wawedem @ yahoo.com; phone: 0032 485 97 87 09,
2Email: mercyabih @ gmail.com; phone: 00 237 77 98 98 51
*Corresponding Author’s Email: guythappi @yahoo. fr; phone: 00 237 99 47 19 95
Background: The by-products of banana and plantain shrubs, especially banana blossom (banana male bud) are usually thrown away by producers in plantations, and produce important quantities of post harvest waste. The nutritional composition of three varieties of banana and plantain blossoms grown in Cameroon; dessert banana (Musa AAA), plantain (Musa AAB) and cooking banana (Musa ABB), was assessed for their potential applications.
Methods: The contents in water, ash, lipids, protids, carbohydrates and crude fibres were determined using standard A.O.A.C methods. The sugar levels were assayed using colorimetric methods, dietary fibres by enzymatic digestion, amino acids by HPLC, fatty acids by gas chromatography and minerals by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
Results: The results showed that the water content varies from 92.29 (AAA) to 93.73 % F.W. (AAB). The ash content varies from 9.88 (AAB) to 12.25 % D.W. (AAA). The lipid content varies from 4.95 (AAA) to 15.69 % D.W. (ABB) and contains polyunsaturated fatty acids (33.80 - 41.50 g/100g FM), particularly linoleic and gamma linolenic acids. The total protein content varies from 8.89 (AAB) to 10.35 % D.W. (AAA). Leucine, phenylalanine + tyrosine, valine, lysine and threonine are the main essential amino acids (2.75 - 3.30 %). The total carbohydrate content varies from 22.36 (AAA) to 62.19 % D.W. (AAB) and glucose, fructose and sucrose are dominant in the AAB genotype with values of (8.15; 3.04 and 1.35 % respectively). The AAA genotype is rich in total dietary fibres (50.09 %). These banana and plantain flowers are rich in macrominerals. Potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus levels are high in the AAA genotype, with values of (6480; 687; 273; 211 mg/100g D.W., respectively).
Conclusions: These blossoms could be considered as a source of dietary fibres for the control of obesity and diabetes. Further investigations on the composition and the physiological functions (using animal-feeding experiments) of these dietary fibres are to be considered.
Key words: banana and plantain blossoms, nutritive value, varieties.
AOAC (1980). Official Methods of Analysis. (13th ed.). William Horwitz, Washington, D.C. Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
AFSSA (2009). Etude Individuelle Nationale des Consommations Alimentaires 2 (INCA2) 2006-2007. http://www.anses.fr/Documents/PASERRA-INCA 2.pdf, 228p. Consulted on 18th November 2012.
AFSSA (2010). Avis de l’Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Aliments relatifs à l’actualisation des apports nutritionnels pour les acides gras. In AFSSA-Saisine 2006- SA-0359. http://www.anses.fr/Documents/NUT2006sa0359.pdf, 10p. Consulted on 18th November 2012.
Akubor PI and Ishiwu C (2013). Chemical composition, physical and sensory properties of cakes supplemented with plantain peel flour. International Journal of Agricultural Policy and Research, 1: 87-92.
Benton JJ and Vernon WC (1990). Sampling, handling and analyzing plant samples Westerman (ED) soil testing and plant analysis (3rd ed). SSSA Book Series N°3, 784p.
Bhaskar JJ, Salimath PV and Nandini CD (2011). Stimulation of glucose uptake by Musa sp. (cv. elakki bale) flower and pseudostem extracts in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 91: 1482−1487.
Bhaskar JJ, Mahadevamma S, Nandini D, Chilkunda and Salimath PV (2012). Banana (Musa sp. var. elakki bale) Flower and Pseudostem: Dietary Fiber and Associated Antioxidant Capacity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60: 427−432.
Dubois M, Gilles KA, Hamilton JK, Rebers PA and Smith F(1956). Colorimetric Method for Determination of Sugars and Related Substances. Agricultural Research Service, 28p.
Dury S, Bricas N, Tchango Tchango J, Temple L and Bikoï A (2002). The determinants of urban plantain consumption in Cameroon. Food Quality and Preference, 13 :81–88.
FAO (1970). Table de composition des aliments à l’usage de l’Afrique. Documents Nutrition. Rome, 3: 4 - 136.
FAO (1999). Statistic Series 52. Year book Production. Agriculture. Rome, Italy, 254p.
FAO/WHO (2001). Human vitamin and mineral requirements. Report of a joint FAO/WHO expert consultation Bangkok, Thailand, 281p.
FAO/WHO (2003). Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. WHO Technical Report Series 916, WHO, Geneva, 160p.
FAO/WHO (2007). Protein and amino acid requirements in human nutrition. WHO Technical Report Series 935, WHO, Geneva, 180p.
Gil A, Serra-Majem L, Calder PC and Uauy R (2012). Systematic reviews of the role of omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention and treatment of disease. British Journal of Nutrition, 107: S1-S2.
Happi ET, Andrianaivo RH, Wathelet B, Tchango Tchango J and Paquot M (2007). Effects of the stage of maturation and varieties on the chemical composition of banana and plantain peels. Food Chemistry, 103: 590–600.
Happi ET, Robert C, Ronkart SN, Wathelet B and Paquot M (2008a). Dietary fibre components and pectin chemical features of peels during ripening in banana and plantain varieties. BioresourceTechnology, 99: 4346-4354.
Happi ET, Ronkart SN, Robert C, Wathelet B and Paquot M (2008b). Characterisation of pectins extracted from banana peels (Musa AAA) under different conditions using an experimental design. Food Chemistry, 108: 463-471.
INIBAP (International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain) (2002). Net Working Banana and Plantain: INIBAP Annual Report 2001, Montpelier, France.
IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) (2004). Standard methods for the analysis of oils, fats and derivatives. Oxford: Pergamon Press. 1990; Technology, 37: 657–661.
Kaiser FE, Gehrke ChW, Zumbalt RW, and Kuo KC (1974). Amino acid analysis. Hydrolysis, ion-exchange clean-up, derivatisation and quantitation by gas–liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography , 94: 113–133.
Kanazawa K and Sakakibara H (2000). High content of dopamine, a strong antioxidant, in Cavendish banana. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48: 844–848.
Kouassi KS (2001). La création variétale par pollinisation manuelle chez les bananiers (Musa spp.). Mémoire DEA. Université d’Abidjan-Cocody, Côte d’Ivoire, 50p.
Lassoudière A (2007). Le bananier et sa culture. Versailles, France. Édition Quæ, 384p.
Mohapatra D, Sabyasachi M and Namraba S (2010). Banana and its by-products utilization: An overview. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 69: 323-329.
Murphy J et Riley JP (1962). A modified single solution method for phosphate in waters Analytica Chimica Acta, 27: 31-36.
Olaofe O, Faleye FJ, Adeniji AA and Akinsola AF (2009). Amino acid and mineral compositions and proximate analysis of Chinese bottle, Lagenaria siceraria. Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 8: 534-543.
Pari L and Maheshwari UJ (2000). Antihyperglycemic activity of Musa sapientum flowers: Effect on lipid peroxidation in alloxan diabetic rats. Phytother Ressources,14:136-138.
Pasupuleti V and Anderson W (2008). Book on “Nutraceuticals, Glycemic Health and Type 2 Diabetes”, Ames, IA: Wiley-Blackwell Publishers, 20p.
Prosky L, Asp NG, Schweizer TF, De Vries JW and Furda I (1992). Determination of insoluble and soluble dietary fiber in foods and food products: Collaborative study. Journal of Association of Official Analytical Chemist, 75: 360-367.
Ramadan MF, and Mörsel JF (2002). Neutral lipids classes of blackcumin (Nigella sativa L.) seed oils. European Food Research and Technology, 214: 202–206.
Robinso JC (1996). Distribution and importance; taxonomic classification, cultivars and breeding. In: J. C. Robinson (Ed.), Banana and plantains (p. 1–33). Wallingford: CAB International.
Schneeman BO (1987). Soluble and insoluble fiber-different physiological response. Food Technology, 2 : 81–82.
Sheng ZW, Wei-Hong M, Jin-He G, Yang B, Wei-Min Z, Hua-Ting D and Zhi-Qiang J (2010). Investigation of dietary fiber, protein, vitamin E and other nutritional compounds of banana flower of two cultivars grown in China. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9: 3888-3895.
Someya S, Yoshiki Y and Okubo K (2002). Antioxidant compounds from bananas (Musa Cavendish). Food Chemistry, 79: 351–354.
Stover RH and Simmonds NW (1987). Classification of banana cultivars. In R. H. Stover & N. W. Simmonds (Eds.), Bananas (3rd ed., pp. 97–103). New York: Wiley.
Wickramarachchi KS and Ranamukhaarachchi SL (2005). Preservation of Fiber-Rich Banana Blossom as a Dehydrated Vegetable. Science Asia, 31: 265-271.
Call for Articles/Books/Thesis
Call for Scholarly Articles
Authors from around the world are invited to send scholary articles that suits the scope of this journal. The journal is currently open to submissions and will process and publish articles daily, immediately they are ready.
The journal is centered on quality and goes about its processes in a very timely fashion. Seasoned editors/reviewers will be consulted to review each article(s), profer quality evaluations and polish the articles with expertise before publication.
Use our quick submit button to submit or simply send your article(s) as an e-mail attachment to email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Call for Books
You are also invited to submit your books for online or print publication. We publish books related to all academic subject areas. Submit as an e-mail attachment to email@example.com.