Ukanwoko and Nwachukwu
Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7 (2), pp. 054-059, March 2017.
Manuscript Number: 032317044
Nutrient and Anti-Nutritional Composition of Crop Residues and Kitchen Wastes Fed to Small Ruminants in Choba, Port Harcourt
A.I. Ukanwoko*and J. Nwachukwu
Department of Animal Science,University of Port Harcourt.P. M. B. 5323 Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State.Nigeria.
The study was carried out to determine the nutrient composition, anti-nutritional factors and mineral content of crop residues and kitchen wastes fed to small ruminants in Choba and to ascertain the best crop residues and kitchen wastes suitable to these animals.
The samples of crop residues and kitchen wastes commonly fed to small ruminants were collected from farms, home of farmers and restaurants around the study area.
They were dried and analysed for moisture content, crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract, and ash and nitrogen free extract. The anti-nutritional factors (saponins, tannins and phytate) were checked and the mineral content (calcium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium and sodium) were also analysed. The data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA).
The results gotten showed that the nutrient composition, anti-nutritional factors and mineral content were significantly different (P<0.05). These crop residues and kitchen wastes (maize cob, vegetable residues, ripe plantain peels, cassava leaves, cassava peels, yam peels, cocoyam peels and banana peels) showed low levels of anti-nutrients within tolerable levels (3% for saponins and 2% for tannins) for small ruminants. Cowpea pod (4.85%), pineapple wastes (5.02%) and banana peels (3.00%) had tannin levels higher than the recommended 2% for small ruminants and as such need further processing to reduce their tannin levels. All the crop residues and kitchen wastes had adequate levels of minerals especially calcium and phosphorus and their nutrient compositions fell within the requirements for small ruminants. Therefore, these crop residues and kitchen wastes should be used for small ruminant feeding.
Keywords: Crude protein, goats, minerals, nutrient composition, saponins, sheep, tannins
Adamu HY, Abbator F, Abdul SB, Jokhtan GE and Yashim SM (2010). Chemical composition of some common supplementary feeds for ruminants in semi – arid zone of Nigeria. In: Babayemi O J, Abu, O A and Ewuola, E O (eds). Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference of the Society for Animal Production (NSAP), 14th – 17th March, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Pp. 537 – 539.
Akande KE, Doma UD, Aguh O and Adamu HM (2010). Major Anti-nutrients found in plant protein sources: Their Effect on Nutrition. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9 (8): 827-832, 2010, ISSN 1680-5194.
Akinsanmi AO, Oboh G, Akinyemi J, Ayodele J and Adefegha AS (2015). Assessment of the nutritional and antioxidant capacity of unripe, ripe and over ripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) peels. International Journal of Advanced Research. 3(2): 63 – 72.
Anhwange BA, Ugye JT and Nyiatagher TD (2009). Chemical composition of Musa sapietum peels. Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agric. And Food Chem. 86: 437 – 444.
A.O.A.C (2004). Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official method of analysis Association. 16th Edition
Areghare EM (2000). Chemical composition and nutritive value of some tropical-product feedstuffs for small ruminants - Invivo and invitro digestibility. Animal feed science and technology 85(1): 99-109
Babayemi OJ, Ifut OJ, Inyang UA and Isaac LJ (2010). Quality and chemical composition of cassava waste ensiled with albiziasaman pods. Agricultural journal. 5: 225-228.
Banerjee GC (1991). A text book of animal husbandry eighth edition, New Delhi: Oxford and IBH publishing.
Barkshi MPS and Wadhwa M (2004). Evaluation of forest leaves of semi-hilly arid region as livestock feed. Asian Australian J. Ani. Sci. 95: 93-104
Esteban MB, Garcia AJ, Ramos P and Marquez MC (2007). Evaluation of fruit vegetable and fish wastes as alternative feedstuffs in pig diets. Elsevier Science Direct 27: 193 – 200.
Gizzi G and Givens DI (2004). Variability in feed composition and its impact on animal production. In: Assessing quality and safety of animal feeds. FAO Animal Production and Health paper 160. FAO, United Nations, Pp 36 – 52.
Kalio GA, Ayuk AA and Agwunobi LN (2013). Performance and economics of West African Dwarf (WAD) bucks fed crop by – products as sole feed in Cross River State, Nigeria. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1(3): 081 – 087.
Ijeomah HM, Chima UD and Okagbare OH (2013). Ecological survey of avifaunal resources in University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental studies and management. 6(6): 648 – 660.
Isah OA, Aderinboye RY and Enogieru VA (2011). Effect of anti nutritional factors on rumen bacteria of West African Dwarf goats fed tropical browse species and crop by – products. Journal of Agricultural Science and Environment. 11(1): 50 – 58.
Lawal B, Ossai PC, Shittu OK and Abubakar AN (2014). Evaluation of phytochemicals, proximate, minerals and anti nutritional compositions of yam peel, maize chaff and bean coat. International Journal of Applied Biological Research. 6(2): 21 – 37.
Lopez – Gouzalez AA, Grases F, Roca P, Mari B, Vicente – Herrero MT and Costa – Bauza A (2008). Phytate (Myo – inositol hexaphosphate) and risk factors for osteoporosis. J. Med. Food. 11(4): 747 – 752.
Mahesh MS and Mohini M (2013). Biological treatment of crop residues for ruminant feeding: A review. African Journal of Biotechnology. 12 (27): 4221 – 4231.
Mokemiabeka S, Dhellot J, Kobawila SC, Diakabana P, Ntietie Loukombo FN, Nyanga Koumou AG and Louembe D (2011). Softening and mineral content of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) leaves during the fermentation to produce Ntoba mbodi. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology. 3(6): 418 – 423.
Okareh OT, Adeolu AT and Adepoju OT (2015). Proximate and mineral composition of Plantain (Musa paradisiacal) waste flour- a potential nutrient source in the formulation of animal feeds. African Journal of Food Sciece and Technology. 6(2): 53 – 57.
Olagunju A, Onyike E, Muhammad A, Aliyu S and Abdullahi AS (2013). Effects of fungal Lachnocladium spp – pretreatment on nutrient and anti nutrient composition of corn cobs. African journal of Biochemistry Research. 7(11): 210 – 214.
Onyeonagu CC and Njoku OL (2010). Crop residues and agro – industrial by – products used in rtraditional sheep and goat production in rural communities of Makurdi LGA. Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. 9(3): 161 – 169.
Oresegun A, Fagbenro OA, Ilona P and Bernard E (2016). Nutritional and antinutritional composition of cassava leaf protein concentrate from six cassava varieties for use in aqua feed. Cogent Food and Agriculture. 2 (1): 1147323. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311932.2016.1147323.
Promkot C and Wanapat M (2004). Ruminal degradation and intestinal digestion of crude protein of tropical resources using nylon bag and three step in vitro procedure in dairy cattle. In: Proceedings of the Agricultural seminar, Animal Science/Animal Husbandry, held at Sofitel Raja Orchid Hotel 27 – 28.
Sarwatte SV, Milang’ha MS, Lekule FP and Madalla N (2004). Moringaoleifera and cottonseed cake as supplements for small holder dairy cow fed Napler grass. Livestock research for rural development Vol.16, Art/38 retrieved January, 26,113.
Soetan KO and Oyewole OE (2009).The need for adequate processing to reduce the anti-nutritional factors in plants used as human foods and animal feeds: A review.African Journal of Food Science Vol. 3 (9), pp. 223-232, September, 2009.
Ukanwoko AI and Ibeawuchi JA (2014). Evaluation of cassava peel – cassava leaf meal based diets for milk production by the West African Dwarf goats in South Eastern Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science (IOSR – JAVS) 7(5): 27 – 30.
Yohanna BI, Nyako HD, Hyeladi MI, Yokanna AH and Mohammed ID (2015). Formulation and nutrient composition of dry season ration for ruminants using crop residues and their rumen degradation characteristics in semi arid region of Nigeria. Annals of Biological Research. 6(7): 1 – 6
Call for Articles/Books
Call for Scholarly Articles
Authors from around the world are invited to send scholary articles that suits the scope of this journal. The journal is currently open to submissions and will process and publish articles daily, immediately they are ready.
The journal is centered on quality and goes about its processes in a very timely fashion. Seasoned editors/reviewers will be consulted to review each article(s), profer quality evaluations and polish the articles with expertise before publication.
Use our quick submit button to submit or simply send your article(s) as an e-mail attachment to firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com.
Call for Books
You are also invited to submit your books for online or print publication. We publish books related to all academic subject areas. Submit as an e-mail attachment to firstname.lastname@example.org.