Singh et al
Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 4 (4), pp. 150-165, May 2014.
Manuscript Number: 042914214
Multiple Diseases, Insect Pests Resistant Genotypes and Their Utilization in Breeding for Resistance in Wheat and Triticale
D.P. Singh1*, A.K. Sharma2, K.S. Babu3, Indu Sharma4and
1Present Address: Institutional Specialist, NAREI, Mon Repos, ECD, GUYANA, 4Project Director, 5Former Project Director. Directorate of Wheat Research, Karnal (Haryana) 132001, India.
2Present address: Director, NBAIM, PB No.6, Kaithauli, Mau Nath Bhanjan, 275101, U. P. India.
3Present address: Scientist (SG), Directorate of Sorghum Research, Rajendranagar,
Hyderabad 500030, A.P. India.
*Corresponding Author’s Email: dpkarnal @ gmail. com, Fax: +591-2202481,
A total of 347 numbers of genotypes of Triticum aestivum, 66 of T. durum, 8 of T. dicoccum and 18 of triticale possessing resistance against multiple diseases and insect pests resistance were taken for the study. These were identified resistant to biotic stresses through rigorous evaluation under artificially inoculated conditions at hot spot locations in six agro ecological zones of India during 1998-99 till 2011-12 cropping seasons. The diseases and insect pests targeted were three rusts (stem, leaf and stripe rust), Karnal bunt, flag smut, leaf blight, powdery mildew, loose smut, brown wheat mite, root aphid, foliar aphid and shoot fly. The seeds of these genotypes along with passport data on disease resistance were shared with breeders at 30 main wheat and triticale breeding centres in India. The percentage of centres utilized these genotypes for hybridization and resistance breeding ranged from 4.0-63.6%. The per cent utilization was maximum in case of T. aestivum followed by T. durum, T. dicoccum. The most preferred genotypes of T. aestivum were, ‘DBW 18’, ‘DBW 32’, ‘GW 276’, ‘HD 2851’, ‘HD 2964’, ‘HD 2997’, ‘HP 1872’, ‘HW 2044’, ‘HW 3027’, ‘HPW 42’, ‘HPW 155’, ‘HPW 237’, ‘HPW 285’, ‘HUW 620’, ‘HS 295’, ‘HS 318’, ‘HS 345’, ‘HS 375’, ‘HS 420’, ‘HS 468’, ‘HS 493’, ‘HW 2045’, ‘HW 3083’, ‘HW 5037’, ‘HW 5208’, ‘K 9351’, ‘K 9441’, ‘MACS 295’, ‘MACS 2959’, ‘NW 3087’, ‘NW 1012’, ‘PBW 373’, ‘PBW 475’, ‘PBW 521’, ‘PBW 550’, ‘PBW 554’, ‘PBW 573’, ‘PBW 589’, ‘Raj 3765’, ‘Raj 4012’, ‘RAJ 4120’, ‘RAJ 4131’, ‘UP 2425’, ‘UP 2719’, ‘VL 801’, ‘VL 868’ and ‘VL 907’. In case of T. durum, 66 genotypes were utilized by 4.0-36% centres and most liked were, ‘AKDW 4155’, ‘CDW 04’, ‘GW 1139’, ‘HD 4696’, ‘HI 8498’, ‘MACS 3313’, ‘PDW 267’ and ‘PDW 312’. Likewise, out of eight genotypes of T. dicoccum, ‘MACS 2956’ (32.0%) and ‘MACS 2971’ (15.0%) were used most. Utilization of 18 numbers of triticale genotypes was 4.0-14.8% only. It may be due to lesser preference of triticale as compared to bread and durum wheat for breeding. The major preference of breeders was on genotypes having resistance against three or two rusts depending on agro climatic zones. The genotypes havingLr34 gene which is known for providing resistance to leaf rust were also found to be resistant to other diseases and aphids. The incorporation of resistance genes from resistant genotypes shared in breeding programme has helped greatly in management of diseases and insect pests using host resistance and avoided or reduced application of costly fungicides on wheat and producing pesticide free wheat in India. The deployment of resistant cultivars strategically in areas of prevalence of diseases and insect pests helped to further curtail losses in yield and quality of wheat and outbreak of rusts and other diseases thus ensure food self sufficiency as well as export of surplus wheat in future. These genotypes will be good source for molecular studies related to multiple disease and insect pests.
Keywords: Multiple disease and insect pests, resistant genotypes, Triticum aestivum,T. durum, T. dicocum, Triticale, resistance breeding.
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Singh D P, Sharma A K, Nagarajan S, Jagdish Kumar, Saharan M S, Jag shoran, Sinha V C, Goel L B, Nayar S K and Prashar M. (2005). Powdery mildew resistant genotypes in wheat and Triticale. Indian Phytopath. 58: 124.
Singh D P, Sinha V C, Goel L B, Indu Sharma, Aujla S S, Karwasra S S, BeniwalM S, Amerika Singh, Singh K P, Tewari A N, Bagga P S, Sharma B K, Singh D V, Srivastava K D, Rashmi Aggrawal and Verma B R. (2003b): Confirmed sources of resistance to Karnal bunt in wheat in India. Plant Dis. Res.18: 37-38.
Singh D P, Sharma A K and Grewal A S (2001). Loose smut resistant lines in wheat with combined resistance to Karnal bunt, rusts, powdery mildew and leaf blight. Wheat Information Service, 92: 27-29.
Singh D P, Sharma A K, Karwasra S S, Pant S K, Indu Sharma and Majumdar V L (2008). Nature of resistance in wheat and Triticale to loose smut. Indian Phytopath. 61: 528-529.
Singh R P and Rajaram S. (2014). Breeding
for disease resistance in wheat.
Yahyaoui A, Al Naimi M, Nachit M and Hakim S. (2000). Multiple disease resistance in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum). In: Royo C, Nachit M, Di Fonzo N, Araus J L(eds.). Durum wheat improvement in the Mediterranean region: New challenges. Zaragoza: CIHEAM. pp. 387-392.
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