Pam et al
Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Vol. 5 (6), pp. 217-222, November 2015.
ISSN: 2276-7770 © 2015 Greener Journals
Manuscript Number: 080315110
Intensity of Contamination of Vegetables in different Markets in Jos South Local Government Area of Plateau State
Pam, D.D.1, Pam, V.A.2, Bot, C.C.3, Abdullateef, M.H.3, Ogbu, K.I.4
1University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria
2Department of Parasitology, FCAH&PT,National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria
3Deparment of Animal Health, FCAH&PT, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria
A total of one hundred and sixty (160) vegetable samples where collected in Jos South Local Government, from two different markets (Building material and Vom market) between May to June 2013 for analysis. These vegetable samples include cabbage, carrot, garden egg, lettuce, and spinach. They were screened using normal saline sedimentation technique. Cysts, ova and larvae of intestinal protozoa, Cestodes and nematode were recovered. 88 (55.0%) of the sample were positive for different species of parasites. Strongyloides stercoralis 38.63% had the highest occurrence follow Entameoba coli, with 34 (38.63%), 29 (32.9%) were observed for Hookworm, Hymenolepis nana had the least with 5 (5.68%). Cabbage with 27.00% had the highest parasitic load, spinach was found to have the least multiple parasites contamination of sixteen (16%). The results from this work shows an indication that animal parasites can be acquired through the consumption of these vegetables, especially when not properly and hygienically prepared before taken to market.
Keywords: Contamination, Vegetables, Markets, Plateau State.
Adas, (1999). The safe sludge matrix: guide line for the application of sewage sludge to Agricultural lands. Adas woiver Hampton. UK.
Altekruse, S.F, Cohen, M.L and swerdlow, D.L (1997); Emerging food borne- Disease. Emerg infect Disease. 3: 285-293.
Ayer, R.M.et al (1992): Was Tewater Reuse in Agriculture and Risk of Nematode infection parasitology today, 8 (11): 32-35.
Bean NH, Goulding Js, et al (2000): surveillance for food-borne disease out breaks United State, 1998-1992. J. food prod. 60: 1265-1286.
Bean NH, Griffin pm (1990): food borne disease out breaks in the United State; 1973-1987:pathogen, vehicles and trends J. food prot 53:807-814.
Center of disease control and prevention (1997). Out break of Escherichia coli infection and crytosporidiosis associated with drinking unpasteurized apple cider-Connecticut and New York morbidity and mortality weekly report 45: pp 4.
Cheesebrough (1991): medical parasitology. Medical lab mannal for tropical countries vol 4: 163-411.
Chiodini PI (2001): chemotherapy for patients with multiple parasite infection, parasitology 22: 583-90.
Duckworth, R.B and Tiraw(1996): farming system for the production of fruit and vegetables, Oxford, pergama press pp 46-62.
Erdogrul, and Sener R.w, (2005) :The contamination of various fruits and vegetables with E.Histolylica. Cyst, Enterobins Vermicularis, Ascaris eggs and Giardia cyst-journal of food control (3) 16: 559—562.
Frazier, W.C and westhoff, D.C (1998): Food Microbiology. T. M. H. edition. Pg 98-209.
Gerald, D.s, and Lary, S.R.(2000): Foundation of Parasitology 6th edition McGraw Hill Book Co.Inc pp 6—7.
Gibson, D. I., Brag, R.A. (1994): the evolutionary expansion and host parasite relationship of the Digenea, Int. J. Parasitolology 24:12/13-26.
Harold, B (1979) Basic clinical Parasitology 4th edition pg 26—29,135.
Hayneman Donald (1995): medical parasitology section medical microbiology Applelon and large publishers. Pg 315-339.
Hedbery, C.W, McDonald K.L, Osterhoim M.T. (1994): changing epidemiology of food-borne diseases S, A minesota perspective cin, infect disease 18:671-682.
Jones P.W.S (1980) Animal health Today problems of Disposal Brazilian Veterinary Journal 136:529—540.
Luca S.A., Ajugi I., Umuh J. U. (2000). Helminthosis among primary school children. J. of Parasitology. 21:109-116.
Mara D, cairo, C.S (1989) Guideline for the safe use of waste water and excreta and Agriculture measures for public health protection.
Okorokwo, M.O, and Onwuliri C.O.E. (1998). Intestinal parasites from refuse dumps and Abattoir wash in Plateau State Nigeria. Journal of Medical Laboratory Science 1:120-126.
Public health laboratory service (1996) communicable disease reports, 6 (37):7- 24.
Public health laboratory service (1996). Quarterly report on food safety measure. 1:54-56.
Roberson, L.J. and Gjerde, b (2001) occurrence of parasitic on fruit and vegetables in Norway journal of food protection 64; 1793-1798.
Smith J.P (1996) Animal parasitology 3rd edition Cambridge University press.
Socket, P.W. (1993) social and economic aspects of food borne Disease. Journal of food policy. 110-119.
Soni, G.R and Nama H,S (1992): viability of Geohelminth eggs on foodstuff comparative physiology and ecology 6 (4): 289-292.
Umeche, N. (1991) parasitic ova and cysts on fruits sold in Nigeria. Journal of parasitology 12: 85 -87.
United Nation Development programme/world bank (1991): Waste water treatment and reuse in the middle east and north Africa region unlocking potential. Draft report: project (RAB/88009)
United state food safe and drugs Administration (2001) center for food safety and applied nutrition Washington D.C 215-230.
Wong, M.S, and Bundy, D.A.P,(1990) Quantitave assessment of contamination of soil by eggs of ascaris lumbricoldes and Trichuris trichina. Trans Royale Social Tropical Medicine and Hygiene;84:564-570.
World Health Organization (1984).The role of food safety in health and development. World Health Organization Technical Report Series No 705 Geneva. World Health Organization (1989) health guidelines for the W.H.O scientific group No 778, Geneva Pp 35-39.
World Health Organization ( 1991). Key to identification of intestinal parasite in medical parasitology Geneva 67-79.
World Health Organization (1997a). World Health Report- 1997.W.H.O Geneva.
World Health Organization (1999): surface decontamination of fruits and vegetable eaten raw food safety program document November. 4-30.