Anteneh and Yadav
Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7 (9), pp. 243-254, November 2017.
ISSN: 2276-7770 © 2017 Greener Journals
Manuscript Number: 102917160
A Review Sheep Production System, Yield, Quality and Preservation Methods in Ethiopia
Anteneh Worku*1, K.R. Yadav2
1Debre Markos University, Collage of Agriculture and Natural Resource, Po Box 269, Debre Markos, Ethiopia.
2Harmaya University, College of Agriculture, School of Animal and Range Science, P.O.Box; 138, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.
The review assesses Sheep Production System, Yield of Sheep Meat, Chemical Composition, Preservation of Meat and its quality in Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, Sheep production provides food, cash income and manure to the smallholder farmers. Major feed resources in Ethiopia for sheep production are natural pasture, crop residues, Aftermath, browse species and agro-industrial byproducts and to a lesser extent improved pasture and forage crops. In the country, the different types of sheep production system practiced accordingly are: Highland sheep-barley system, mixed crop-livestock system, pastoral and agro-pastoral production system, ranching, and Urban and peri-urban (UPU) sheep production system. Ethiopia has a diverse indigenous sheep population numbering 28.89 million Sheep, excluding nomadic areas. Meat production is depends up on different factors feed is one protein and energy are limiting factors, so that supplementation of nutrient has shown dramatic change on meat yield of the sheep in Ethiopia
Keywords: Ethiopia, sheep, chemical composition, meat preservation, meat quality.
Abd El-aal HA and Suliman AIA. 2007. Carcass traits and meat quality of lamb fed on ration containing different levels of leucaena hay (Leucaena leucocephala) scientific paper, presented at International Congress on Animal Husbandry “New Perspectives and Challenges of Sustainable Livestock Farming”, Belgrade. 3-5.
Abebe Hailu, Solomon Melaku, Birhaan Tamir and Asaminew Tassew. 2011. Body weight and carcass characteristics of Washera sheep fed urea treated rice straw supplemented with graded levels of concentrate mix. Livestock Research for Rural Development. Accessed April 16, 2014, from http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd23/8/hail23164.htm.
Adam AAG, Atta M, and Ismail SHA. 2010. Quality and Sensory Evaluation of Meat from Nilotic Male Kids Fed on Two Different Diets. J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 9 (15):2008-2012
Adugna Tolera, Alemu Yami and Dawit Alemu. 2012. Livestock feed resources in Ethiopia: Challenges, Opportunities and the need for transformation. Ethiopia Animal Feed Industry Association, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Adugna Tolera. 2008. Feed resources and feeding management: A manual for feedlot operators and development workers. SPM-LMM program. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Alemayehu Mengistu. 2006. Country pasture/forage resources profiles. In: Francias, J. M. Suttie and S.G. Reynolds (eds). FAO publications, Rome, Italy.
Alemu Yami and R.C. Merkel, 2008. Sheep and Goat Production Handbook for Ethiopia.
Amare, S., 2012. Qualitative and quantitative aspects of animal feed in different agro-ecological and Agriculture: Livestock in the Balance FAO, Rome, 2009.
Amha Sebsibe. 2008. Sheep and goat meat characteristics and quality. pp. 325-340. In: Alemu Yami and R.C. Merkel (eds.), Ethiopia sheep and goat productivity improvement program (ESGPIP). Branna Printing Interprise, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Andrzej S .2010. Water-Holding Capacity of Fresh Meat. Published as a National Pork Board/ American Meat Science Association Fact Sheet. Author Elisabeth Huff-Lonergan, Iowa State University, America. pp. 20-26
ARC. 1980. (Agricultural Research Center). The Nutrient Requirements of Ruminant Live Stock. Technical Review by an Agricultural research Council Working Party Published on behalf of The Agricultural Research Council by the Common Wealth Agricultural Bureau. Famhan Royal, Kengland .114-151p.
ARC, 1984. (Agricultural Research Council). Nutrient requirements of ruminant livestock. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau, London, UK.
Aschalew Assefa and Getachew Animut. 2013. Supplementation of raw, malted and heat treated grass pea (Lathyrus Sativus) grain on body weight gain and carcass characteristics of Farta sheep. International Journal of Soil and Crop Sciences, 1(1):1-6
Asfaw, N., Shahidur, R. and Berhanu, G. 2011. Livestock Production and Marketing. ESSP II Working Paper 26. International Food Policy Research Institute/ Ethiopia Strategy Support Program II, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Awet Estifanos and Solomon Melaku. 2009. Supplementation of Graded Levels of Wheat Bran to Intact and Castrated Afar Sheep Fed Urea Treated Tef Straw: Effects on Feed Intake, Digestibility, Body Weight and Carcass Characteristics. East African Journal of Sciences, 3 (1):29-36.
Belachew H and Jemberu E .2003. Challenges and opportunities of livestock marketing in Ethiopia. In Proceedings of the 10th annual conference of the Ethiopian Society of Animal Production (ESAP). ESAP (Ethiopian Society of Animal Production), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pp. 1-13.
Beriain MJ, Bas P, Purroy A, and Treacher, T .2001. Effect of animal and nutritional factors and nutrition on lamb meat quality. ETSIA, Universidad Pública de Navarra, crta. El Sadar, s/n, 31005 Pamplona, Spain. Laboratoire de Nutrition et Alimentation, INA-INRA, 16, rue Claude, 75231 Paris, France. pp. 75-81.
Birhanu Tesema, Getachew Animut and Mengistu Urge. 2013. Effect of Green Prosopis juliflora pods and noug seed (Guizotia obissynica) cake supplementation on digestibility and performance of Blackhead Ogaden sheep fed hay as a basal diet. Science, Technology and Art Research Journal, 2(2): 38-47.
Berg RT and Butterﬁeld RM 1976. New concepts of cattle growth. Foreword by St CS Taylor. University of Sydney Press, Sydney, Australia. 240pp.
Brown, E.M. 1991. Extracellular Ca2+ sensing, regulation of parathyroid cell function and role of Ca2+ and other ions in extracellular (first) messengers. Physiological Reviews, 71:371-411.
Carrasco, S., Panea, B., Ripoll, G., Sanz, A., and Joy, M. 2009. Influence of feeding systems on cortisol levels, fat colour and instrumental meat quality in light lambs, Meat Science, 83, 50–56, doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2009.03.014,
Cheeke, P.R., 1991. Applied Animal Nutrition. Feeds and Feeding. Macmillan, New York and Toronto. 54-50p.
Church, D.C., 1986. Livestock Feeds and Feeding. A Reston book. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. 549p.
Cohen JS and Yang TCS. 1995. Progress in food dehydration. Trend Food Sci. Technol 6:20-25.
CSA, 2015/16. Agricultural sample survey report on livestock and livestock characteristics Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 2(583).
Destefanis, G., A. Brugipaglia, M. T. Barge and E. Molin. 2008. Relationship between beef consumer tenderness perception and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Meat Sci. 78:153-156.
Duckett, S. K., Neel, J. P., Lewis, R. M., Fontenot, J. P., and Clapham, W. M.: Effects of forage species or concentrate finishing on animal performance, carcass and meat quality, J. Animal Sci., 91, 1454–1467, doi:10.2527/jas.2012-5914, 2013.
Ensminger, M.E., 2002. Sheep and goat science. (6th), Interstate publishers, INC. 515p.
ESGPIP (Ethiopia Sheep and Goat Productivity Improvement Program). 2009. Goat breeds of Ethiopia: A guide for
identification and utilization. Technical Bulletin 27. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: ESGPIP.
ESGPIP (Ethiopian sheep and Goats Productivity Improvement program), 2008. Sheep and goats production handbook for Ethiopia, Branna printing enterprise. Ethiopia. 345p.
Fakolade PO, and Omojola AB .2008. Proximate composition, pH value and microbiological evaluation of ‘Kundi’ (dried meat) product from beef and camel meat. Conference on International Research on Food Security, Natural Resource Management and Rural Development. Meat Science Laboratory, Animal Science Department, University of Ibadan. Nigeria. October 7-9.
FAO ,2004. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved July 15, 2004; fromFAOSTATon-lindatabas http://faostat.fao.org/faostat/default.jsp?language=EN&version=ext&h asbulk=0
FAO, 2007 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Regional Office for Asiaand the Pacific Bangkok.
Fennema O. 1975. Food Science and Technology Monographs. In: Duckworth, R. G., editor). Water relations of foods. London: Academic Press. p. 539−556. Fennema OR. 1996. Water and Ice. In: Fennema, O. R., editor). Food Chemistry. 3rd ed. New York: Marcel Dekker Press. p. 55-94.
Fisher, A. V., Enser, M., Richardson, R. I., Wood, J. D., Nute, G. R., Kurt, E., Sinclair, L. A., and Wilkinson, R. G. 2000. Fatty acid composition and eating quality of lamb types derived from four diverse breed × production systems, Meat Science, 55, 141–147, doi:10.1016/S0309-1740(99)00136-9, Franks F. 1985. Biophysics and biochemistry at low temperature. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Gemeda Duguma, Tesfaye Taddesse, Takele Kumsa and Solomon Abegaz. 2007. Evaluation of the impact of plane of nutrition on growth and carcass traits of Horro lambs castrated at different ages. pp 13-23. In: Proceedings of the 15th annual conference of the Ethiopian Society of Animal Production, 4-6 October 2007. Ethiopian Society of Animal Production Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Girma Hailu, Getachew Animut and Mengistu Urge. 2014. Effect of Different Proportion of Malted Oat Grain and Noug Seed Cake Supplementation on Digestibility and Performance of Arsi-Bale Sheep Fed Grass Hay Basal Diet. International Journal of Applied Sciences & Engineering, 2(2): 28-36.
Granato D, Branco GF, Nazzaro F, Cruz AG and Faria JAF. 2010. Functional Foods and Nondairy Probiotic Food Development: Trends, Concepts, and Products. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 9(3):292-302.
Gray, J.I. and Crackel, R.L. (1992) Oxidative flavour changes in meats: their origin and prevention. In: Johnston, D.E., Knight, M.K. and Ledward, D.A. (eds) The Chemistry of Muscle-based Foods. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, pp. 145–168.
Gustavson J, Cederberg C, Sonesson U, van Otterdijk R, Meybeck, A .2011. Global Food Losses and Food Waste. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
Herbert RA. 1989. Microbial growth at low temperature. In: Gould, G. W., editor). Mechanisms of action of food preservation procedures. London: Elsevier Applied Science. p. 71-96.
Herbert RA. 1989. Microbial growth at low temperature. In: Gould, G. W., editor). Mechanisms of action of food preservation procedures. London: Elsevier Applied Science. p. 71-96.
Hopkins, D. L. and R. G. Taylor. 2002. Post-mortem muscle proteolysis and meat tenderisation. In: Muscle development of livestock animals (Ed. M. te Pas, M. Everts and H. Haagsman). pp. 363-389. Cambridge, MA, USA: CAB International.
Hopkins, D. L., R. S. Hegarty, P. J. Walker and D. W. Pethick. 2006. Relationship between animal age, intramuscular fat, cooking loss, pH, shear force and eating quality of aged meat from sheep. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 46:879-884.
Hopkins, D.L., and Geesink, G.H. 2009. Protein degradation post mortem and tenderisation. InApplied Muscle Biology and Meat Science, pp. 149-173, (Ed Du, M. and McCormick, R.), CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, USA.
Huang TC and Nip WK. 2001. Intermediate-Moisture Meat and Dehydrated Meat. In: Hui, Y. H., Nip, W.-K., Rogers, R. W. & Young, O. A., editors. Meat Science and Applications. New York: Marcel Dekker. p. 403-418.
Hutton T. 2004. Food preservation an introduction Chipping Campden,England: Campden & Chorleywood Food Research Association Group.
INRA, 1989. Ruminant nutrition Recommended allowances and feed tables (ed. R Jarrige), INRA, Paris, France, 373pp.
Kaić, A., B. and Mioč, A. Kasap .2012. Color as a factor of quality of lamb meat (in Croatian). Meso, 15, 426-431.
Karaca, S. and Kor, A. 2015. Effect of feeding system on meat quality and fatty acid profile of lambs slaughtered at the same age or live weight, VII: Balkan Conference on Animal Science, IlidzaSarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 3–6 June.
Kassahun A, Getachew G, Zelalem A, Negussie A, and Fletcher, I., 1991. Small ruminant production in Ethiopia: Constraints and future prospects. In Proceedings of the third national livestock improvement conference, Institute of Agricultural Research (IAR), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pp. 37-48.
Kassahun Awgichew. 2000. Comparative performance evaluation of Horro and Menz sheep of Ethiopia under grazing and intensive feeding conditions. PhD Dissertation, Hamburg University, Berlin, Germany.
Krvavica, M. 2012. The qualitative changes of different mutton categories in the process of curing and drying. Dissertation. Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb.
Lambe, N. R., E. A. Navajas, A.V. Fisher, G. Simm, R. Roehe, L.and Bunger .2009. Prediction of lamb meat eating quality in two divergent breeds using various live animal and carcass measurements. Meat Sci. 83, 366-375.
Lambe, N.R., Navajas, E.A., Schofield, C.P., Fisher, A.V., Simm, G. and Roehe, R., et al. 2008. The use of various live animal measurements to predict carcass and meat quality in two divergent lamb breeds. Meat Science, 80, 1138-1149.
Lee I. Chiba, 2014.Sheep nutrition and feeding Animal Nutrition Handbook.
Lemus, R. and Brown, K. 2008. Feeding small ruminants: developing a grazing system for sheep and goats.
Maleda Birhan and Takele Adugna. 2014. Livestock feed resources assessment, constraints and improvement strategies in Ethiopia. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, 21(4): 618-704.
Martin M. 2001. Meat curing technology. In: Hui, Y. H., Nip, W.-K., Rogers, R. W. & Young, O. A., editors. Meat science and applications. New York: Marcel Dekker. p. 491-508.
Martinez-Cerezo, S., C. Sañudo, B. Panea, I. Medel, R. Delfa, I. Sierra, J. A. Beltrán, R. Cepero, and J. L. Olleta, 2005. Breed, slaughter weight and ageing time effects on physico-chemical characteristics of lamb meat. Meat Sci. 69, 325-333.
McCall, K.A., Huang, C., Fierke, C.A. 2000. Function and mechanism of zinc metalloenzymes. The Journal of Nutrition. 130:1437S-1446S.
McMillin, K. W. and A. P. Brock. 2005. Production practices and processing for value-added goat meat. J. Anim. Sci. 83:E57E68.
Meschy, F. 2000. Recent progress in the assessment of mineral requirements of goats. Livestock production Science. 64:9-14.
Mike, N., 2007. The Basics of Feeding Sheep. Extension Sheep Specialist Purdue University http://ag.ansc.purdue.edu/sheep/articles/index.html (accessed 19 July 2014).
Moran, J. B. and J. T. Wood. 1986. Comparative performance of 5 genotypes of Indonesian large ruminants. 3. Growth and development of carcass tissues. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 37:435447.
Norton, B.W., 1998. Animal production from tree legumes. pp. 155-181. In: R.C. Gutteridge and H.M. Shelton (eds.). Forage Tree Legumes in Tropical Agricultur. The Tropical Grassland Society of Australia.
NRC 1985. Nutrient requirements of sheep, Sixth revised edition. National Research Council of the National Academies, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.
NRC, 1981. (Nutrient requirements of domestic animals), No.15. Nutrient requirements of goats: Angora, dairy and meat goats in temperate and tropical countries. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.
NRC, 2007. (National Research Council). Nutrient requirements of small ruminants. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.
Nuernberg, K., Fischer, A., Nuernberg, G., Ender, K., and Dannenberger, D. 2008. Meat quality and fatty acid composition of lipids in muscle and fatty tissue of Skudde lambs fed grass versus concentrate, Small Ruminant Res., 74, 279–283, doi:10.1016/j.smallrumres.2007.07.009,
O’Halloran, G. R., D. J. Troy, D. J. Buckley and W. J. Reville. 1997. The role of endogenous proteases in the tenderisation of fast glycolysing muscle. Meat Sci. 47:187-210.
Pearson AM and Gillett TA. 1996. Processed meats,3rd ed. New York: Chapman & Hall.
Peña, F., A. Bonvillani, B. Freire, M. Juárez, J. Perea and G. Gómez, 2009. Effect of breed ad slaughter weight on the meat quality of CriolloCordobes and Anglonubuian kid produced under extensive feeding condition. Meat Sci., 83: 417-422.
Perry, D., J. M. Thompson, I. H. Hwang, A. Butchers and A. F. Egan. 2001. Relationship between objective measurements and taste panel assessment of beef quality. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 41:981-989.
Pond, W.G., D.C. Church and K.R. Pond, 1995. Basic animal nutrition and feeding. 4th edition. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 601p.
Popova, T .E.2007.ffect of the rearing system on the fatty acid composition and oxidative stability of the M. longissimus lumborum and M. semimembranosus in lambs, Small Ruminant Res., 71, 150– 157, doi:10.1016/j.smallrumres.2006.06.001,
Powell, S.R. 2000. The antioxidant properties of zinc. The Journal of Nutrition. 130:1447S-1454S.
Priolo, A., Micol, D., and Agabriel, J. 2001. Effects of grass feeding systems on ruminant meat colour and flavour. A review, Animal Res., 50, 185–200, doi:10.1051/animres:2001125,
Purchas, R.W. 1990. An assessment of the role of pH differences in determining the relative tenderness of meat from bulls and steers. Meat Sci. 27, 129-140.
Rahman MS & Perera CO. 2007. Drying and food preservation. In: Rahman, M. S., editor). Handbook of food perservation 2nd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press. p. 403-432.
Reddy, D.V., 2006. Production of Forage in Indian Context: Fodder Production and Grassland Management for Veterinarians. Oxford Publishing New Delhi. 453p.
Rick, M. 2007. Minerals. Small ruminant Series. Uvalde, Texas Agricultural Extension Service. Retrieved on December 20, 2006 from http://sullontx.tamu.edu/publication/ACF275/.
Ripoll, G., Joy, M., Muñoz, F., and Albertí, P. 2008. Meat and fat colour as a tool to trace grass-feeding systems in light lamb production, Meat Science, 80, 239–248, doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.11.025,
Rubio, C., González, D., Martín-Izquierdo, R.E., Revert, C., Rodríguez, I., and Hardisson, A. 2007. El zinc: oligoelemento esencial. Nutrición Hospitalaria. 22:101-107.
Russell NJ. 1990. Cold adaptation of microorganisms. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Sciety of London Series B 329:595-611.
Santos-Silva, J., Mendes, I. A., and Bessa, R. J. B. 2002.The effect of genotype, feeding system and slaughter weight on the quality of light lambs: 1. Growth, carcass composition and meat quality, Livest. Prod. Sci., 76, 17–25, doi:10.1016/S0301- 6226(01)00334-7,
Schönfeldt, H. C. and P. E. Strydom. 2011. Effect of age and cut on tenderness of South African beef. Meat Sci. 87:206-208.
Seyoum Bediye, Zinash Sileshi and Dereje Fekadu. 2007. Composition and nutritive value of Ethiopian feedstuff, research report no.73. pp. 9-19. Institute of Agricultural Research (IAR), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Shorthose, W. R., V. H. Powell and P. V. Harris. 1986. Influence of electrical stimulation, cooking rates and ageing on shear force values of chilled lambs. J. Food Sci. 51:889-892, 928.
Solomon Gizaw, Azage Tegene, Birhanu Gebremedhin and Hockstra, D. 2010. Sheep and goat production and marketing system in Ethiopia; characteristics and strategies for improvement. IPMS/ILRI, Addid Ababa, Ethiopia.
Solomon Gzaw. 2008. Sheep resources of Ethiopia: Genetic diversity and breeding strategy. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
Stefanidou, M., Maravelias, C., Dona, A., Spiliopoulou, C. 2006. Zinc: a multipurpose trace element. Archives of Toxicology. 80:1- 9.
Tsegay Lijalem , Mohammed Beyan And Sandip Banerjee 2015.Banerjee Quality of beef, chevon and mutton at Hawassa, Southern Ethiopia.
Umberger, S.H., 2009. Feeding sheep. Virginia polytechnic institute and state University. 840-853 p.
Underwood, E.J. 1981. The Mineral Nutrition of Livestock. Common wealth Agricultural Bureaux, London.
Voges, K. L., C. L. Mason, J. C. Brooks, R. J. Delmore, D. B. Griffin and D. S. Hale. 2007. National beef tenderness survey 2006: Assessment of Warner-Bratzler shear and sensory panel ratings for beef from US retail and foodservice establishments. Meat Sci. 77:357-364.
Webb, E. C., N. H. Casey and L. Simela. 2005. Goat meat quality. Small Rumin. Res. 60:153-166.
Wondwosen Bekele, Solomon Melaku and Yosef Mekasha. 2013. Effect of substitution of concentrate mix with Sesbania sesban on feed intake, digestibility, body weight change and carcass parameters of Arsi-Bale sheep fed a basal diet of native grass hay. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 45:1677-1685.
Yanjun Lu, 2010. The development of a cured, fermented sheep meat sausage designed to minimize species and pastoral-diet flavours Msc, thesis submitted for School of Applied Sciences AUT University.
Yano, F., Yano, H. and Breves, G. 1991. Calcium and phosphorus metabolism in ruminants. In: Proceedings of Seventh International Symposium on Ruminant Physiology. Academic Press, New York, pp. 227-295.
Yilkal Tadesse, Yosef Mekasha and Firew Tegegn. 2014. Supplementation with Different Forms of Processed Lupin (Lupinus albus) Grain in Hay Based Feeding of Washera Sheep: Effect on Feed Intake, Digestibility Body Weight and Carcass Parameters. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)
Yohannes Urgesa. 2011. Supplementation of different level of corn silage with linseed meal on performance of black head ogaden sheep fed grass hay Msc, thesis Haramaya University.