Girma et al
Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7 (9), pp. 255-262, November 2017.
ISSN: 2276-7770 © 2017 Greener Journals
Manuscript Number: 110917164
Response of Applied Phosphorus Fertilizer Rate and Plant Spacing for Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Production on Nitisols in Central Highland of Ethiopia
Girma Chala*1, Abebe Chindi2 and Zeleke Obsa 2
1,2Holeta Agriculture Research Centre, EIAR, P.O.Box 31, Holeta, Ethiopia
The use of low phosphorus fertilize rate as well as inappropriate plant spacing are one of the main factors constraining potato production in Ethiopia. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted during the 2015 and 2016 main growing season in Welmera and Ada’a Berga district in the central highland of Ethiopia. The experiment was aimed at determining the effect of phosphorus fertilizer rates and plant spacing on yield and yield components of potato. The treatments consisted of five phosphorus fertilizer rate and four levels of plant spacing (65 cm x 30 cm, 75 cm x 30 cm, 85 cm x 30 cm and 95 cm x 30 cm). The experiment was laid out as a randomized complete block design in a factorial arrangement and replicated three times. Analysis of the results revealed that phosphorus fertilizer and plant spacing significantly affected leaf area index, marketable tuber number, total tuber numbers, total yields, specific gravity and tuber dry matter. However, days to follower and days to maturity significantly affected by phosphorus fertilizer but did not affect by plant spacing. Increasing or widening plant spacing significantly reduced total as well as unmarketable tuber yields whereas decreasing or narrowing it significantly increased this yield parameter. On the other hand, increasing plant spacing significantly increased marketable tuber yields. In conclusion, the phosphorus fertilizer and plant spacing produced the highest tuber yields (ton ha-1) as well as marketable tuber yield in response to planting at phosphorus fertilizer in the form of P2O5 115kg ha-1 and spacing of 85 cm between rows and 30 cm between plants for Belete variety was advisably.
Keywords: phosphorus fertilizer, plant spacing, potato.
Abebe, T., Lemaga, B., Mwakasendo, J A., Nzohabonayoz,Z., Mutware, J., Wanda, K.Y., Kinyae, P.M., Ortiz, O., Crissman, C., Thiele, G. 2010. Markets for fresh and frozen potato chips in the ASARCA region and the potential for regional trade: Ethiopia, Tanzania, Rwanda, Kenya, Burundi and Uganda. Working Paper. International Potato Centre (CIP). Lima, Peru, 44p.
Annad, S. and K. S. Krishnappa, 1989. Dry matter accumulation and nutrient uptake by potato cv.Kufri Badsha h as affected by deferent levels of N and K in sandy loam soil. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Sciences.23: 65-70
Dechassa N., M. K. Schenk and N. Steingrobe. 2003. Phosphorus Efficiency of Cobbage (Brassica oleraceae L. var.capitata), Carrot, Carrot (Daucus carota L.), and Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Plant and Soil, 250: 215-224.
ECSA, 2009. (Ethiopia Central of Statistical Agency Anlaysis), Agricultural sample survey: Report on area and production of crops, Addis Abeba, Ethiopia. Pp. 126.
Ewing, E.E., 1997.Potato. In: H.C.Wien(ed). The physiology of vegetable crops. UK, Cambridge. Pp. 295-344.
FDRE (The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia) 2011. Five Year Plan for Growth and Transformation (2011-2015). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Ministry of Finance and Economic Development.
Gildemacher, P.R., W. Kaguongo O. Ortiz Tesfaye Abebe, Gebremedhen Woldegiorgis. Wagoire,R.Kakuhenzire, P.M. Kinyae M.Nyongesa P.C. Struik and C. Leeuwis 2009. Improving potato production in Kenya,Uganda and Ethiopia: A System Diagnosis. Potato Research 52:173–205.
Haverkort, A.J., D. Uenk, H. Veroude and M. Vander Waart, 2012. Relationships between ground cover, intercepted
solar radiation, leaf area index and infrared reflectance of potato crops. Potato Research. 34: 113–121
Kleinkopf,G.E., D. T.Wester mann and M.J. Willie, 1987.Specific gravity of Russet Burbank potatoes. American Potato Journal. 64: 579-587.
Lung’aho, C., B. Lemaga, M. Nyongesa, P. Gildermacher, P. Kinyale, P. Demo, and J. Kabira, 2007. Commercial seed potato production in eastern and central Africa. Kenya Agricultural Institute. 140p.
Ngungi, D.N., 1982. Agronomic concept of potato with reference to increasing the potential yield under tropical condition. In potato seed production for Tropical Africa, (ed.) Nganga, S. and shiderler, F. CIP, Lima. Peru. PP. 13-16.
Perrenoud S. 1983. Potato-Fertilizers for yield and quality. International Potash Institute, Bulletin No.8. Berne, Switzerland.84p.
Singh, T.P. and K.B. Singh, 1973. Association of grain yield and its components in segregations of green gram. Indian J. Genetics. 33: 112-117.
Solomon, Yilama, 1985. Review of potato research in Ethiopia. PP. 294 - 307. In: proceedings of 1st Ethiopian Horticultural work shop. 20-22 February 1985, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Tai, G. C., G. Misere, Alley and L. P. McMillan, 1985. GRAVA –O –TATER: A computer apparatus for measuring specific gravity. American Potato Journal. 62: 403-408.
Tekalign, Tsegaw, 2005. Response of potato to paculobutrazol and manipulation of reproductive growth under tropical
conditions. PhD thesis..PP 2-3.
Thompson, R. and W.J. Kelly, 1983. Vegetable crops. 5th ed. MC Graw Hill Book Co. Inc., New York pp. 372-404.
White, P. J., Bradshaw, J.E., Finaly, M., Dale B. and Ramsay, G. 2009. Relationships between yield and mineral concentrations in potato tubers. Hort Science 44: 6-11.
William, M.A. and G.W. Woodbury, 1968. Specific gravity dry matter relationship and reducing sugar changes affected by potato variety, production area and storage. American Potato Journal. 45(4): 119-131.
Wurr, D. C. E., 1992. Some effects of seed size and spacing on the yield and grading of two main crop potato varieties. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Cambridge.82: 37-45.