Sercan and Yahya
Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7 (9), pp. 263-270, November 2017.
Manuscript Number: 112117171
Characterization of Aroma Profile of Bogma, Traditional Homemade Turkish Spirit††
*Sercan Dede, Yahya Kemal Avşar
Mustafa Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, Antakya-Hatay, Turkey.
Volatile compounds and aroma profile of Bogma (traditional Turkish
homemade distilled spirit) produced from dry fig were investigated. Volatile
compounds by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and aroma active
compounds by gas chromatography/olfactometry (GC/O) were determined using
direct injection (DI) and head space-solid phase microextraction techniques
(HS-SPME). Aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA) was employed to reveal the
importance of each aroma active compounds in Bogma aroma.
With DI, 12 volatiles and 7 aroma active compounds were detected while HS-SPME showed the existence of 44 volatiles and 16 aroma active compounds. Of the total aroma active compounds, 7 were determined only at the sniffing port. Results showed that aroma of this traditional spirit was affected from its raw material and production processes. Furthermore, both HS-SPME and DI technique should be used as complementary for a better understanding of aroma or similar type spirits.
Key words: Bogma, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, olfactometry, aroma.
Anli R E, Vural N. and Gucer Y (2007) Determination of the principal volatile compounds of Turkish Raki. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 113(3): 302-309.
Anonymous 2005. Turkish Food Codex No: 2005/11. Distilled Alcoholic Beverages, Turkish Ministry of Agriculture, 2005.
Apostolopoulou AA, Flouros AI, Demertzis PG, Akrida-Demertzi K (2005). Differences in concentration of principal volatile constituent in Traditional Greek Distillates. Food Control, 16: 57-164.
Bulur A (2010). Research on the fundamental volatile components of Turkish Rakies. Çukurova University, MSc thesis. Adana, Turkey.
Cabaroglu T and Yilmaztekin M (2011). Methanol and major volatile compounds of Turkish Raki and effect of distillate source. Journal of the Institute of Brewing. 117(1): 98-105.
Capobiango BM, Mastello RB, Chin S-T, Oliveira Ede S, Cardeal Zde L, Marriott PJ (2015). Identification of aroma-active volatiles in banana Terra spirit using multidimensional gas chromatography with simultaneous mass spectrometry and olfactometry detection. Journal of Chromatography A, 1388: 227–235.
De León-Rodríguez A, Escalante-Minakata P, Jiménez-García MI, Ordoñez-Acevedo LG, Flores Flores JL and Barba de la Rosa AP (2008). Characterization of Volatile Compounds from Ethnic Agave Alcoholic Beverages by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Food Technology and Biotechnology. 46 (4): 448–455.
Deibler KD, Acree T and Lavin EH (1999). Solid phase microextraction application in gas chromatography olfactometry dilution analysis. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 47: 1616−1618.
Eng-Leun Mau J, Beelman ROB and Ziegler GRR (2006). 1-octen-3-ol in the cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. Journal of Food Science, 57(3): 704-706.
Ertekin B, Okur ÖD and Güzel-Seydim Z (2009). Formation of Flavor Compounds by Amino Acid Catabolism in Cheese. Gida, 34 (1): 43-50. (Turkish)
Erten H and Canbaş A (2003). Aroma substances formed during the alcoholic fermentation. Gida, 28(6): 615-619. (Turkish)
Fidan I, Denli Y ve Anlı E (1996). A study on the amount of methanol in the production of raki in Turkey. Gida, 21(6): 415-418. (Turkish)
Gözlekçi S, Kafkas E and Ercişli S (2011). Volatile compounds determined by HS-GC/MS in peel and pulp of fig (Ficus carica L.) cultivars grown in Mediterranean Region. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agro-Botanici Cluj/Napoca, 39(2): 105-108
Jurado JM, Ballesteros O, Alcazar A, Pablos F, Martin MJ, Vilchez JL and Navalon A (2007). Characterization of aniseed-flavoured spirit drinks by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and chemometrics - Talanta (72): 506–511.
Mujic I, Kralj MB, Jokic S, Jug T, Subaric D, Vidovic S, Zivkovic J and Jarni K (2012). Characterization of volatiles in dried white varieties figs. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 51(9): 1837-46.
Nykanen L and Nykanen I (1991). Distilled beverages (In: Maarse H, editor). Volatile Compounds in Foods & Beverages. New York, Marcel Dekker, p.547-580.
Öncü F, Ögel K and Çakmak D (2002). Alcohol Culture-2: Culture of Drink and Drink Literature, Journal of Dependence, 3(1): 31-36. (Turkish).
Plutowska B and Wardencki W (2008). Application of gas chromatography–olfactometry (GC–O) in analysis and quality assessment of alcoholic beverages – A review. Food Chemistry, 107: 449–463.
Plutowska B, Biernacka P and Wardencki W (2010). Identification of Volatile Compounds in Raw Spirits of Different Organoleptic Quality. Journal of the Institute of Brewing. 116(4): 433-439.
Şahin İ and Özçelik F (1982). The composition of our distilled spirits, especially research on the amount of methanol. Gida, 7(3): 121-129. (Turkish)
Van Den Dool H and Kratz PD (1963). A generalization of the retention index system including linear programmed gas liquid partition chromatography. Journal of Chromatography, 11: 463-471.
Yavaş I and Rapp A (1991). Gaschromatographisch-Massenspektrometrische Untersuchungen der Aromastoffe von Raki. Deutsche Lebensmittel-Rundschau, 87: 41-45. (German)
Yvon M and Rijnen L (2001). Cheese flavor formation by amino acid catabolism, International Dairy Journal, 11: 185-201.
Zeren C, Aydin Z, Yonden Z and Bucak S (2012). Composition of Bogma raki, Turkish traditional alcoholic beverage. Journal of Food Technology, 10: 87-91.
Call for Articles/Books/Thesis
Call for Scholarly Articles
Authors from around the world are invited to send scholary articles that suits the scope of this journal. The journal is currently open to submissions and will process and publish articles daily, immediately they are ready.
The journal is centered on quality and goes about its processes in a very timely fashion. Seasoned editors/reviewers will be consulted to review each article(s), profer quality evaluations and polish the articles with expertise before publication.
Use our quick submit button to submit or simply send your article(s) as an e-mail attachment to firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com.
Call for Books
You are also invited to submit your books for online or print publication. We publish books related to all academic subject areas. Submit as an e-mail attachment to firstname.lastname@example.org.