Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7 (8), pp. 210-215, October 2017.
ISSN: 2276-7770 © 2017 Greener Journals
Manuscript Number: 101417150
Metabolizable Energy and Digestibility Estimates of mixed Diets of Crop By-Products as Readily Available Feeds for Small Ruminants
Godfrey Adokiye Kalio
Department of Agricultural Science Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, PMB 5047, Ndele, Nigeria.
The Metabolizable energy and digestibility estimates of mixed rations containing crop by-products as feeds for small ruminants was investigated using the in vitro gas production technique. Four concentrate feed mixtures of maize (TM), Cassava peel (TCP), Plantain peel (TPP) and Yam peel (TYP) in a roughage base of Panicum maximum in the ratio of 40%: 60% was formulated as potential readily available diets for small ruminants. Results reveal that the TCP supplemented energy based diets possess a higher ME value than the ME values for the plantain peel TPP, TM and TYP supplemented diets. The ME values recorded for TCP and TPP were within the recommended ME values for an average diet (6 – 13 MJ/kg/DM); hence can fulfill the energy requirements for small ruminants when utilized. Similarly, the TYP and TPP treatment groups recorded the highest value of SCFAs, hence being a major source of energy as well as a building block for milk synthesis. The diet containing TCP recorded the highest organic matter digestibility (OMD) after 24 hours of incubation. It is therefore recommended that non-conventional feedstuffs such as crop by-products could be better substitutes as energy sources in sheep and goat diets on account of their nutritional value in terms of metabolizable energy (ME), short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and organic matter digestibility (OMD) as well as their ready availability and predominance, cheapness and better economic gains to small ruminant farmers.
Key words: Metabolizable energy, digestibility, in vitro gas production, crop by-products, small ruminants, diets.
Adegbola, T.A, Ogbonna, R.C and Nwachukwu, N.E (1988). Nutrient Intake, Digestibility and Rumen Studies in Goats fed varying levels of cassava peels and brewer’s dried grain. Nigeran.Journal of Animal Production.15: 161 – 166.
Babayemi, O.J., Otukoye, F.K., Femilade, F.O. & Daodu, M.O. (2009). Assessment of the nutritive value of bovine liquor and urea treated corn-straw and corn-cobs as feed for the West African Dwarf sheep and goats. Nigerian Journal of Animal.Production. 36(2): 313- 324.
Bergman, E.N. (1990). Energy contributions of volatile fatty acids from the gastrointestinal tract in various species. Physiology Review. 70: 567-590.
Chumpawadee, S., Chantiratikul, A. and Chantiratikul, P. (2007). Chemical Compositions and Nutritional Evaluation of Energy Feeds For Ruminant Using In vitro Gas Production Technique. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 6 (6): 607-612.
Devendra, C. (1989). Non-conventional feeds: Potential value for animals in the Asian Region. Outlook on Agriculture, 18 (2): 58 – 64.
Getachew, G., Makkar, H.P.S and Becker, K. (1999). Stoichiometric relationship between short chain fatty acid and in vitro gas production in presence and absence of polyethylene glycol for tannin containing browses, EAAP Satellite Symposium, Gas production: fermentation kinetics for feed evaluation and to assess microbial activity, 18 – 19 August, 1999, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Kalio, G.A., Ayuk, A.A. and Agwunobi, L.N. (2014). Performance of West African Dwarf (WAD) Goats Fed N-treated Source and Forage Supplemented Cassava Peels in Humid Cross River State, Nigeria. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 4(6): 629-638.
Menke, K.H. and Steingass, H. (1988).Estimation of the energetic feed value from chemical analysis and in vitro gas
production using rumen fluid. Animal Research and Development. 28: 27 – 35.
Statistical Analytical Systems (SAS) (1999).SAS for Users Guide Statistics.SAS Inc: Cary, North Caroline.
Steel, R.G.D. and Torrie, J.H. (1980).Principles and procedures of Statistics. Biometric Approach (2nd Edition) McGraw Hill Co.Inc., New York, USA.
Steele, M. (2006).Goats. CTA-Macmillan Publishing Ltd., London and Basingstoke.(152 pp).
Stokes, S.R. and Prostko, E.P. (2016). Understanding Forage Quality Analysis. Extension Dairy Specialist and Extension Agronomist, The Texas A&M University System.