Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences

Open Access

Subscribe to 

our monthly News letters

Dawelbai and Abana

Greener Journal of  Agricultural Sciences Vol. 3 (9), pp. 687-692, September 2013.

 ISSN: 2276-7770 © 2011 Greener Journals

Research Paper

 Manuscript Number: 071513730


Improvement of Hay and Crops Straw Using Chemical Additives and Testing of Cassia Fistula Tree Pods as Animal Feed


Elnazeir Mohammed Dawelbait M.*1 and Suaad Babikir Abana2


1Elobeid Agricultural Research Station, Sudan.

2Kadugli Research Station, Sudan.


*Corresponding Author’s Email: elnazeir_m @


The study was undertaken at range-livestock research laboratory, El-Obeid Agricultural Research Station in the year (2012), with the objective of improving the digestibility of hay and crops straw and identifying the possibility of introducing Cassia fistula pods in animal feed as alternative source of protein and carbohydrates. Samples were treated using 5% urea solutions, 2% Sodium hydroxide(SH) and mixture (6% urea and 2% SH) (500ml, H2O), Samples (Cowpea and Groundnut haulms , Sorghum and millet straws, early hay, lately hay and Roselle straw) were fermented for three periods (15, 30 and 45 days).  Proximate analysis and In vitro digestibility were done. The experiment was arranged as factorial in an RCBD. The results showed that groundnut haulms ,sorghum straw and millet  straw  had the highest crude fiber content (53%, 47.5%and 42%, respectively) while cowpea and groundnut haulms recorded the highest crude protein content (16.5 and 14.5% respectively). Urea and sodium hydroxide treatments resulted in significantly increased IVDMD of cowpea hay, and groundnut haulms compared with Roselle and untreated residues, with combined urea +sodium hydroxide treatments recorded the highest IVDMDs. Fermentation for a period of 30 days had resulted in higher IVDMDs compare with period s of 15 and 45 days. Respective IVDMDs for cowpea hay for 0 (control), 15, 30 and 45 days were 65, 70, 88 and 87%, that for groundnut haulms were 65, 70, 85 and 80, and that for Roselle were 34, 45, 69 and 69%). Cassia fistula mature pods recorded 19 and 19.5% crude protein and fiber, while green pods were 17 and 17%. The IVDMD were 68, 62.6 and 61.48 % for green pods, leaves and mature pods respectively. The study concluded that urea, sodium hydroxide mixture and sodium hydroxide improve hay and crops residues; nutritive value in the terms of IVDMD and CP. Cassia fistula pods had also higher CP and IVDMD. Therefore we highly recommend the use of urea and sodium hydroxide mixture to improve hay and crops residues by fermentation for 30 days.


Keywords: Straw, In virto, Digestibility, Crude protein, Crude fiber.

Return to Content   View Reprint (PDF) (209KB)