Ibidapo et al
Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7 (7), pp. 175-181, September 2017.
Manuscript Number: 091617129
Contributions of Non-Farm Activities in Combating Rural Unemployment in Ondo State, Nigeria
*Ibidapo, I., Oso, O. and Ogunsipe, M. H.
Department of Agricultural Science, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo
This study investigated the contributions of non-farm activities in combating unemployment in rural areas of Ondo-east local government area of Ondo state, Nigeria. The multi-stage sampling technique was employed to select one hundred and forty-five smallholder farmers in the study area. The primary data for the study were collected with the aid of structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics- frequency distribution and percentages were used to analyse the socio-economic variables and the Tobit model was used to analyse factors influencing smallholder participation in non-farm activities. The results of the socio-economic characteristics showed that, the mean age of respondents was 45.7±4.2 years, 62.7% were male while 57.3% were married with 8.2±3.9 members per household and 58.6% had primary education. The mean year of experience was 13.3±5.2 years. Tobit model revealed that, age, education, wage earned, access to credit and distance were the significant variables influencing participation in non-farm activities. Non-farm activities help to reduce unemployment, supplement farm income, provide a safety net and alleviate poverty among households. The study recommended that improved access roads, access to credit and education should be provided to boost participation in non-farm activities.
Keywords: Non-farm activities, unemployment, smallholder, diversification, and Ondo-east.
Adepoju, A.O. & Oyewole, O.O. (2014). Rural Livelihood Diversification and Income Inequality in Akinyele Local Government Area, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 59(2): 175-186.
Adewunmi, I.O., Ojiako, I. A. and Omotoyole, A. I. (2013). Participation and Wage of Rural Female Headed Households in Nigeria Non-Farm Employment European Scientific Journal (9)13:194-219.
Amsalu, B. Getnet, K., Kassa, B. and Chaurasia, S. P. R.(2013). Off-farm Labour Supply Decision of Adults in Rural Ethiopia: Double Hurdle Approach. Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development 2(4): 154-165.
Anim, F. D. K. (2011). Factors Affecting Rural Household Farm Labour Supply in Farming Communities of South Africa. Journal of Human Ecology, 34(1): 23-28.
Babatunde, R.O. and Qaim, M.(2009). Patterns of income diversification in rural Nigeria: Determinants and impacts. Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture, 48(4), 305-320.
Babatunde, R.O. and Qaim, M. (2010). Non-farm Labour Market Participation in Rural Nigeria: Driving forces and Household Access. Contributed Paper for the 5th IZA/World Bank Conference: Employment and Development Cape-Town, South Africa May 3, 4th, 2010.
Bagamba, F., Burger, K. and Kuyvenhoven, A. (2009). Determinant of Smallholder Farmer Labour Allocation Decisions in Uganda, IFPRI Discussion Paper 00887, Environment and Production Technology Division.
Benedito. C., Langyintuo, A. and Darnhofer, I. (2011) The role of non-farm income in coping with the effects of drought in southern Mozambique. Agricultural Economics, 1(42): 701-713.
Bernardin, S. (2012) Non-farm income diversification in rural Ghana: Patterns and determinants. African Development Review, 24(3): 233-244.
Damte, A. (2002) Farm Households Labour Supply to Non-farm Activities in Ethiopia MSc Thesis submitted to the School of Graduate Studies, Economics Department, Addis Ababa University, Addis-Ababa. 1- 45.
Chinwuba, I. P. (2015). Determinants of Participation in Nonfarm Economic Activities in South East Nigeria: A Tobit Analysis Approach; Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.org. 5(2): 102-108.
Davis, B., Winters, P., Reardon, T. and Stamoulis, K. (2009). Rural nonfarm employment and farming: household level linkages. Agricultural Economics 20(2):119-123.
Gordon, A. and Craig, C. (2001). Rural non-farm activities and poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa. Social and economic development department Natural Resources Institute. Policy Series. P. 14
Haggblade, S., Hazell, P. and Reardon, T. (2007). Transforming the rural non-farm economy. John Hopkins University Press Baltimore.
Ibekwe, U.C., Eze C.C., Ohajianya, D.O., Orebiyi, J.S., Onyemauwa, C.S. & Korie, O.C. (2010). Determinants of non-farm income among farm households in South East Nigeria. Researcher, Academia Arena, 2(7), 1-4.
Idowu, A., Aihonsu, J., Olubanjo, O. and Shittu, A. (2011). Determinants of Income Diversification amongst Rural Farm Households in Southwest Nigeria Economics and Finance Review 1(5): 31 – 43.
Islam, N. (1997). The Non-farm Sector and Rural Development Food, Agriculture and Environment Discussion Paper, No. 22 Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.
Keija, D. (2008). Employment and Income Diversification in Rural Uganda: Evidence from the 1999/2000 National Household Survey. Thesis Presented for the Award of the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the School of Economics University of Cape Town.
Kimenju, S. C. and Tschirley, D. (2008). Agriculture and Livelihood Diversification in Kenyan Rural Households Tegemo Institute of Agricultural Policy and Development, Nairobi, Kenya.
Matshe, I. and Young, T. (2004). Off-farm Labour Allocation Decisions in Small Scale Rural Households in Zimbabwe Agricultural Economics, 30 (3): 175-186.
Maertens, M. (2009) Horticulture exports, agro-industrialization and farm-nonfarm linkages with the smallholder farm sector: Evidence from Senegal. Agricultural Economics, 40(2): 219-229.
Mitra, A. (1993). Rural non-farm employment, poverty and women The Indian Journal of Labour Economics 36(3):455-69.
National Population Commission (NPC, 2006). Population Census Data Ondo State, Nigeria Federal Republic of Nigeria Official Gazette, National and State Provisional Totals Census Federal Government Printer, Lagos, Nigeria 94 (21): 175 – 198.
Newman, C and Canagarajah (1999). Non-farm Employment, Poverty and Gender Linkages Evidence from Ghana and Uganda Working paper Washingtion DC World Bank.
Nicodemo, C. (2007). Participation and wage equations for married women in European countries A preliminary paper prepared from University of Tor Vergata, Rome.
Reardon, T. (1997). Using evidence of household income diversification to inform study of the rural non farm labour market in Africa World Development, 25 (5), 735-748.
Reddy, S. S., Ram, P. R., Sastry, T. V. N. and Devi, I. B. (2009). Agricultural Economics Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. PVT Ltd., New Delhi, India
Sanchez, V. (2005). Determinants of Rural Non-Farm Employment and Incomes in Bolivia. A Thesis Submitted to Michigan State University for award of the Degree of Master of Science Department of Agricultural Economics.
Woldehanna, T. and Oskam, A. (2001). Income diversification and entry barriers: evidence from the Tigray region of northern Ethiopia Food Policy 26(4):351–365
Call for Articles/Books
Call for Scholarly Articles
Authors from around the world are invited to send scholary articles that suits the scope of this journal. The journal is currently open to submissions and will process and publish articles daily, immediately they are ready.
The journal is centered on quality and goes about its processes in a very timely fashion. Seasoned editors/reviewers will be consulted to review each article(s), profer quality evaluations and polish the articles with expertise before publication.
Use our quick submit button to submit or simply send your article(s) as an e-mail attachment to email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Call for Books
You are also invited to submit your books for online or print publication. We publish books related to all academic subject areas. Submit as an e-mail attachment to email@example.com.