Enyiukwu et al
Greener Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vol. 1 (2), pp. 052-065, July 2014.
2384-6321© 2013 Greener Journals
Manuscript Number: 070414288
Biology and Management Strategies of Cowpea Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletrotrichum Species
D.N. Enyiukwu*1, A.N. Awurum1, C.C. Ononuju1, J.A. Nwaneri2
1Department of Plant Health Management, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, PMB 7269 Umuahia Abia State.
2Minor Root Crop Programme, National Root Crop Research Institute (NRCRI) Umudike, P.M.B 7006 Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria.
*Corresponding Author’s Email: enyidave2003 @gmail .com
Anthracnose remains an important biotic factor
constraining the efficient production of cowpeas in tropical and sub-tropical
regions of the world especially in Nigeria. Correct and accurate identification
of its causal organism is essential for tailoring appropriate control or
management techniques for this impediment. So far many Colletotrichum organisms have been
reported as responsible for causing this disease in the crop. It appears that
majority of these reports were predicated on morphological and colony
characteristics of the pathogens from culture studies and/or in some cases, on
uncritical assumption of host-specificity of the pathogens. This makes for the
identity of the causal organism of anthracnose in the crop to be generally
unclear, confusing and a subject of much scientific debate. In the Colletotrichum patho-system
it is known that different species could cause anthracnose of the same host.
Since isolates, show overlapping ranges of morphological, colony and phenotypic
characteristics, molecular diagnostic approaches such as sequence analysis of
the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (1.8S and 5.8S; 5.8S and 28S
genes) and sequence analysis of β tubulin genes which offer comparative
variability for resolving phylogenetic relationships of Colletotrichum species; as well as sequence analysis of introns
from two genes (glutamine synthase and glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate) and MAT1-2
mating sequences which have allowed differentiation of isolates from species
complexes could play vital roles in discriminating the causal organism(s).
Though cultural strategies, tole
lant and resisitant
varieties against the disease and chemical interventions are used in managing
the disease; resistance have been reported to be only temporary due to
variability of Colletotrichum
pathogens. Chemical interventions are disadvantaged in being human and eco-health
disruptive; in addition to the fact that Colletotrichum
spp. have shown resistance to
carbendazim, thiophenate-methyl and benomyl. This review peers into the
economic importance of anthracnose of cowpeas, its causal agent(s), management
strategies for the disease and elaborated the response of the anthracnose organisms
to phyto-chemicals from tropical plants for Integrated Disease Management (IDM)
Keywords: Anthracnose, Colletotrichum spp. Cowpea, Molecular identification, Characterization, IDM.
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