Greener Journal of Biological Sciences Vol. 6 (5), pp. 079-083, November 2016.
© 2016 Greener Journals
Germination and Early Seedling Growth Studies of Zea mays L. Grown in Pennisetum glaucum Seed Extract Treated Medium
*1Etukudo Mbosowo M, 2Okereke Ifeoma J and 3Udo Joseph I
1*Department of Biology, Federal University Otuoke, P.M.B. 126, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.
2Department of Environmental Management and Toxicology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria.
3Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Port Harcourt, River state, Nigeria.
Germination and early seedling growth of Zea mays L were studied in the laboratory using aqueous extract from seeds of Pennisetum glaucum. The concentration levels of the extracts used were, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%, alongside a control 0% (distilled water). The phytochemical and mineral nutrients analysis of Pennisetum glaucum seed extracts indicated the proportion of phytochemicals in their decreasing order; alkaloids, phytate, tannin, saponin, and flavonoid while mineral elements such as K, Na, Mg, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, N and Pb were found in their decreasing order of contents. The coefficient of velocity of germination of Zea mays was relatively higher than that of the control at 40, 60, 80, and 100 % levels of concentration of seed extract of P. glaucum. The germination percentage increased with increase in concentration of seed extract of P. glaucum with the highest value recorded at 100% level of concentration relative to the control. The shoot length and root length of the crop recorded higher values at 80 and 100%, and 100% levels of concentration of seed extract of P. glaucum, respectively, comparable with the control treatment. The fresh weight and dry weight of Z. mays increased with increase in the concentration of seed extract of P. glaucum with values relatively higher than the control treatment at 80 and 100% levels of concentration for fresh weight and at 100% level of concentration for dry weight Therefore, this study suggests that the extracts from this plant can be utilized as nutrients supplements for improved growth and development of Zea mays L.
Key words: Germination, seedling growth, seed extract, Pennisetum glaucum, Zea mays.
Agbede OO (2009). Understanding soil and plant nutrition. Nigeria, Salmon Press and Co. Ltd. 20-60.
Apoxi SO, Long RJ, Castro FB and Orakor ER (2000). Chemical composition and nutritive value of leaves and stems of tropical weeds. Grass and Forage Sci., 55(1), 77-81.
Anoliefo CO (2006). Introductory tropical plant Biology. Nigeria, Uniben Press. 257-362.
AOAC (1999). Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Methods of analysis (16h Edition), Washington DC., U.S.A.
Baker AJM, McGrath SP and Reeves RD (2000). Metal Hyper accumulator Plants. A Review of the Ecology and Physiology of a Biological Resource for Phytoremediation of metal- polluted soils. In: Terry N, Banuelos G, Editors. Phytoremediation of Contaminated Soil and Water. Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers. 85-108.
Chandra K (2005). Production and quality control of organic inputs; A 10 day training programme on production and quality control of organic inputs of Kottayam, Kerala Regional Centre of organic farming- Herbbal, Banglaore, 24, 1-46.
Dutta AC (2012). Botany for Degree students, 6th Ed. Oxford University Press. New Delhi, India. 317-627.
Ebukanson G J and Bassey ME (1992). About seed plants. Baraka Press and Publisher, Nigeria. 20-60.
Esenowo GJ (2000). Elements of biotechnology. Bonie Print Publishing Company, Uyo.
Esenowo GJ (2004). Developmental Biology and plant physiology. Abeam Publishing Co. Nigeria. 23-168.
Etukudo MM, Nwaukwu I A and Habila S (2011). The Effect of Sawdust and Goat Dung Supplements on Growth and Yield of Okro (Abelmoschus esculentus) (L. Moench) in Diesel Oil Contaminated Soil. Journ.al of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment; 3(2): 92- 98.
Etukudo MM, Udo, Joseph I and Okereke IJ (2014). Germination and Growth Studies of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench in Palm Bunch Extract of Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Supplemented Medium. IOSR:Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 8(12 Ver.III): 45- 48.
Etukudo MM, Hamilton-Amachree A and Roberts EMI (2015). Eco-physiological Studies of Elemental and Proximate Contents of Gnetum africanum Welw and Telfairia occidentalis Hook seeds from two Ecological Zones of Akwa Ibom State. European International Journal of Science and Technology, 4(6):47-53.
Gupta NK and Gupta S (2005). Plant Physiology. New Delhi. Oxford IBA Publishing Co. Pvt Ltd.
Holopainen Jarmo K and Blande James D. (2012). Molecular plant volatile communication: Sensing in nature in nature. Journal of The British Ecological Society, 26(5), 18-20.
Macias FA, Marian D, Oliveros-Bastidas A, Varela RM, Simonet AM and Carrera C (2003). Allelopathy as a new strategy for sustainable ecosystem development. Biol. Sci. Space. 17(1), 18-23.
Oboh HA and Okhai EO (2012). Antioxidant and some free radical scavenging abilities of some indigenous Nigerian drinks. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science, 20(1), 21-26.
Ogbeibu AE (2005). Biostatistics: A practical approach to research and data handling. Mindex Publishing Company Limited, Benin.
Range CM and Williams RK (2002). Mineral nutrition and plant morphogenesis. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology, Gaithersborg, 38, 115-124.
Soceanu A, Magearu V, Popescu V, Matei N (2005). Accumulation of manganese and iron in citrus fruits. Analele Universitatii Bucuresti, Chimie. 14(1-2), 173–177.
Todorovis S, Giba Z, Simonovic A, Bozic D, Banjanac T, and Grubišić D (2009). Manganese effects on in vitro development of lesser centaury [Centaurium pulchellum (Sw.) Druce] Archives of Biological Sciences. 61(2), 279–283.
Verma S K and Verma M C (2007). A textbook of plant physiology, biochemistry and biotechnology. 6th Edition. S. Chad & Company Ltd. New Delhi.
Yruela I (2009). Copper in plants: acquisition, transport and interactions. Functional Plant Biology. 36(5): 409–430.a
Call for Papers/Books/Thesis
Call for Scholarly Articles
Authors from around the world are invited to send scholary articles that suits the scope of this journal. The journal is currently open to submissions and will process and publish articles monthly in two yearly issues.
The journal is centered on quality and goes about its processes in a very timely fashion. Seasoned editors/reviewers will be consulted to review each article(s), profer quality evaluations and polish the articles with expertise before publication.
Simply send your article(s) as an e-mail attachment to firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com.
Call for Books
You are also invited to submit your books for online or print publication. We publish books related to all academic subject areas. Submit as an e-mail attachment to firstname.lastname@example.org.