Greener Journal of Biological Sciences

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Greener Journal of  Biological Sciences Vol. 6 (5), pp. 095-102, November 2016.

 © 2016 Authors

Research Articles

Manuscript Number: 111816206



Field Studies on Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Western Coast of Saudi Arabia:  Influence of Temperature, pH and Salinity of the Breeding Water on Larval Abundance


Mostafa Ibrahim Hassan1, Hamdy Al Hossiny Al Ashry2,

Mohammed Shobrak3, Mohamed Amin Kenawy*4


1Prof. of Medical Entomology, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science (boys), Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

2Sector manager of pest control project, TRAP Pest Control and Garden Maintenance Co. Ltd., Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

3Prof. of Animal Ecology, Biology Department, Science College, Taif University, Taif 21974, Saudi Arabia

4Prof. of Medical Entomology, Department of Entomology, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo 11566, Egypt


The knowledge of the characteristics of the breeding habitats and the environmental factors affecting mosquito abundance can help in designing optimal vector control strategies, for this, mosquito larvae were biweekly surveyed for two years in six localities representing the western coast of Saudi Arabia. Temperature, pH and salinity of the breeding water were measured to examine the effect of such factors on larval density. Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. theileri, Cx. pipiens  and Cs. longiareolata  had wider temperature ranges (15 to 33 oC) than Cx. tritaeniorynchusSt. aegypti, An. multicolor, Cx. perexiguus, Cx. sitiens and  An. d’thali (17 to 33) and Cx. torrentium (26 oC). St. aegypti, Cx. pipiens, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cs. longiareolata breed in either acidic or alkaline water (pH: 4.2 to 9.5) while the rest of species breed entirely in alkaline water (pH: 7.0 to 9.6). St. aegypti, Cx. tritaeniorynchus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. theileri and Cs. longiareolata had wider salinity ranges (154 to 1990 ppm) than the other species (611 to 1972 ppm), i.e., all species breed in fresh / brackish water. Multiple Regression analysis indicated that densities (No larvae / 10 dips): (1) of the tested species: Cx. pipiens, Cx. quinquefasciatus (P˂0.05), Cx. tritaeniorynchus (P˂0.01), Cx. theileri, Cx. sitiens, An. multicolor, St. aegypti and Cs. longiareolata were directly related to temperature (b = 0.32 to 6.15), (2) of Cx. pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. sitiensAn. multicolor and St. aegypti were indirectly related to pH (b = -0.13 to -74.57), while those of the other species  were directly related  to pH (b = 2.44 to 23.60) and (3) of Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. theileri and  St. aegypti were indirectly related to salinity (b = -0.002 to -0.017), while those of the other species    were directly related  to salinity (b = 0.002 to 0.074).


Keywords: Mosquito larvae, Breeding water temperature, ph, salinity, Saudi Arabia. 

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