Greener Journal of Biological Sciences

Excellence and Timeliness


Choose Language

Greener Journal of  Biological Sciences Vol. 7 (1), pp. 008-014, January 2017.

 © 2017 Authors

Research Articles

Manuscript Number: 011517006



Variations in Cholinesterase activity in Oil Palm Plantation Workers Exposed to Pesticides


Angbo Yapo KMA1*, Camara Cissé M.1, Nigué L.2, Sess D. 1


1Laboratory of biochemistry, FHB University, medical sciences UFR P.O. Box V166 ABIDJAN,

2Service of Biostatistics and medical informatics FHB University, medical sciences UFR.


Pesticides including organophosphates (OPs) and carbamates are used extensively in public health and agriculture to increase crop yields. The abuse of pesticides can have a serious impact on farmer’s health. The objective of this study is to study changes in serum cholinesterase activity (BChE) as a biological marker of PO poisoning. Workers in a palm tree oil unit during periods of exposure and non-exposure to pesticides, as well as a control group were selected randomly. The clinical signs reported are those observed in the subjects exposed to organophosphates and anticholinesterase carbamates. The serum enzymatic activity (AES) of cholinesterase was quantified by spectrophotometry. The average serum cholinesterase level during the exposure and non-exposure period was 4225.64 U / l ± 791.10 and 4766.47 ± 873.32 versus 6588.95 U / l ± 1303, respectively, 42 the control level (n = 43) (p <0.001). The average enzymatic activity of workers (n = 19) during non-exposure and exposure periods increased from (78.95%) to non-exposure (36.84%) (Data Not shown) with a significant difference (p = 0.00750). Inhibition of enzymatic activity greater than 40% was observed during the non-exposure phase in 21.05% of cases, and during the exposure period in 26.32% of cases, a bi-annual biological factor necessary for these workers.


Keywords: Biomarker. Cholinesterase activity. Ivory Coast. Organophosphates.

Post-review Rundown

View/get involved, click [Post-Review Page]


Amar, S. D.; and Suman, S. (2013): Assessment of Serum Cholinesterase in Rural Punjabi Sprayers Exposed to a Mixture of Pesticides. Toxicol Int. 20, (2)154–159. doi: 10.4103/0971-6580.117258.


Biommis. (2012) : Précis de Biopathologie Analyses Médicales spécialisées


Blanco, L. E.; Aragón A.; Lundberg, I.; Lidén, C.; Wesseling, C.; Nise, G. (2005): Determinants of dermal exposure among Nicaraguan subsistence farmers during pesticide applications with backpack sprayers. Ann. Occup. Hyg, 49, 17–24.


Bulgaroni, V.; Rovedatti, M. G.; Sabino, G.; Magnarelli, G. (2012): Organophosphate pesticide environmental exposure: analysis of salivary cholinesterase and carboxilesterase activities in preschool children and their mothers. Environ Monit Assess. 184, (5) 3307-14. doi: 10.1007/s10661-011-2190-8.


Dasgupta, S.; Meisner, C.; Wheeler, D.; Xuyen, K.; Thi, L.N. (2007): Pesticide poisoning of farm workers-implications of blood test results from Vietnam. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 210, (2) 121-32. doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2006.08.006.


Doumbia, M., and Kwadjo, K. E. (2009): Pratiques d’utilisation et de gestion des pesticides par les maraîchers en Côte d’Ivoire : Cas de la ville d’Abidjan et deux de ses banlieues (Dabou et Anyama). Journal of Applied Biosciences. 18, 992 – 1002.


Faria, N. M. X.; Rosa, J. A. R.; Facchini, L. A. (2009): Poisoning by pesticides among family fruit farmers, Bento Gonçalves, Southern Brazil. Rev. Saude Publ. 43, 335–344. doi: 10.1590/S0034-89102009005000014.


Fournier, E. and Gervais, P. (1970): Dictionnaire des intoxications. Pars : Ed Heures de France, 669.


Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, (I.N.R.S). (2012) : Organophosphorés, Nature du dosage : Cholinestérases intraérythrocytaires.


International Programme on Chemical Safety, (IPCS). (2004): Guidelines on the Prevention of Toxic Exposures. Education and Public Awareness Activities. World Health Organization; Geneva, Switzerland. [(accessed on 24 March 2016)].Available online: http://www.Who.Int/Ipcs/Features/Prevention_Guidelines.Pdf


Joshaghani, H. R.;  Ahmadi. A. R.; Mansourian, A.R. (2007): Effects of occupational exposure in pesticide plant on workers' serum and erythrocyte cholinesterase activity. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 20, (4) 381-5. doi: 10.2478/v10001-007-0039-8.


Juliana, O. P.; Priscila, T.; Juciê, R. S.; Bruno Z. D.; Eloisa, D. C. (2012): Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Biomonitoring of Farmers and Residents Exposed to Pesticides in Brazil Int J Environ Res Public Health. 9, (9) 3051–3068. doi:  10.3390/ijerph9093051


Kamenan, E. J. (2000): Evaluation de l’exposition des insecticides organophosphorés chez les manipulateurs de pesticides en milieu industriel à Abidjan: Thèse pharmacie Abidjan, 369 p.


Karlsson, S. I. (2004): Agricultural pesticides in developing countries A multilevel governance challenge. Environment. 46, 22–41. doi: 10.1080/00139150409604382


Karunamoorthi, K.; Mohammed, A.; Jemal, Z. (2011): Peasant association member’s knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards safe use of pesticide management. Am. J. Ind. Med. 54, 965–970. doi: 10.1002/ajim.21008


Kwong, T. C. 1. (2002): Organophosphate pesticides: biochemistry and clinical toxicology. Ther Drug Monit. Feb; 24, (1) 144-9.


Manda, P.; Dano, D.; Sébastien, K. M.; Mansour, A. F. (2010): Control of the Cholinesterases of the Pesticides Applicators in Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire). European Journal of Scientific Research, 39 (2):176-82.ISSN1450-216XEuroJournalsPublishing, Inc


Ngowi, A.V.; Maeda, D. N.; Partanen, T.J. (2002): Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) among agricultural extension workers concerning the reduction of the adverse impact of pesticides in agricultural areas in Tanzania. Med. Lav. 93, 338–346.


Organisation Internationale de Travail, (O. I. T) (2010): Programme des activités sectorielles ; Recueil de directives et pratiques sur la sécurité et la santé dans l’agriculture, Genève.


 Organisation Mondiale de la Santé. (1979). Sécurité d’emplois des pesticides, Word Health Organ Tech Rep Ser (634) 49.


Ospina, J. M.; Manrique Abril, F.G.; Ariza, N. E. (2009): Educational intervention concerning knowledge and practices regarding work-related risks in potato farmers in Boyacá, Colombia. Rev. Salud Publ.11, 182–190. doi: 10.1590/S0124-00642009000200003.


Recena, M. C. P.; Caldas, E. D. (2008): Risk perception, attitudes and practices on pesticide use among farmers of a city in Midwestern Brazil. Rev. Saude Publ. 42, 294–301.


Ribeiro, M. G.; Colasso, C. G.; Monteiro, P. P.; Filho, W.R.; Yonamine, M. (2012) Occupational safety and health practices among flower greenhouses workers from Alto Tietê region (Brazil) Sci. Total Environ. 416, 121–126. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.11.002.


Sam, K. G.; Andrade, H. H.; Pradhan, L.; Pradhan, A.; Sones, S. J.; Rao, P. G. M.; Sudhakar, C. (2008): Effectiveness of an education program to promote pesticides safety among pesticides handlers of South Índia. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health. 81, 787–795. doi: 10.1007/s00420-007-0263-3.


Snelder, D. J.; Masipiqueña, M. D.; and de Snoo, G. R. (2008): Risk assessment of pesticide usage by smallholder farmers in the Cagayan Valley (Philippines).Crop Prot 27, 747–762. 


Wesseling, C.; van Wendel de J. B.; Keifer, M.; London, L.; Mergler, D.; Stallones, L. (2010): Symptoms of psychological distress and suicidal ideation among banana workers with a history of poisoning by organophosphate or n-methyl carbamate pesticides. Occup Environ Med  67, (11) 778-84. doi: 10.1136 / oem.2009.047266.

Call for Papers/Books

Call for Scholarly Articles

Authors from around the world are invited to send scholary articles that suits the scope of this journal. The journal is currently open to submissions and will process and publish articles promptly.

The journal is centered on quality and goes about its processes in a very timely fashion. Seasoned editors/reviewers will be consulted to review each article(s), profer quality evaluations and polish the articles with expertise before publication.

Simply send your article(s) as an e-mail attachment to or



Login Form

Other Journals