Greener Journal of Biological Sciences Vol. 7 (1), pp. 001-007, January 2017.
© 2017 Greener Journals
Antibacterial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Carica papaya on some Enteric Bacterial Isolates of Public Health Importance
Yahaya A.1*, Ali M.2 and Idris A.3
1Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil. P. M. B. 3244, Kano State, Nigeria
2Biological Science Unit, Ahmadu Bello University, School of Basic and Remedial studies Funtua, Katsina State, Nigeria.
3Department of Biology, Federal University, Dutse, Jigawa State, Nigeria
The study was carried out to determine the antimicrobial activities of Carica papaya and its major antimicrobial constituents (phytochemicals). The aqueous and ethanol extracts from the leaves and stem back of these plants were tested using well Diffusion method for their antimicrobial activity against some members of Enterobacteriales family isolated from diarrheic stool sample (Escherichia coli, Shigella spp, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Statistical analysis of the result shows that both the extracts demonstrated higher activities against bacteria tested, with the average zone of inhibition of 15.44mm, 14.78mm, 12.92mm and 11.31mm for Shigella, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of the extracts ranges between 12.5–100 mg/ml. Preliminary phytochemical analyses showed that the extracts contain alkaloids, tannins, terpenoids, anthraquinones, reducing sugar, amino acid, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides and phenols. Demonstration of antibacterial activity against the test isolates is an indication that there is possibility of sourcing alternative antibiotic substances in these plants for the production of newer antibacterial agents.
Keywords: Antimicrobial activities, Carica papaya, Inhibition, Phytochemical, Entericbacteria.
Ahmad I, Mehmood Z and Mohammad F (1998). Screening on some Indian medicinal plants for their antimicrobial properties. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 62: 183–193.
Akpanabiatu MI, Umoh IB, Eyong EU, Edet EE and Uboh FE (2006). Toxico-pathological changes and phytochemically-induced alleviation in Diabetic Rats Treated with Gongronema latifolium Leaf Extracts.Biopharmaceuticals. 14(13): 273 – 278.
Anas K, Jayasree PR, Vijayakumar, T and Manish Kumar, PR (2008). In-vitro antibacterial activity of Psidium guajava L. Leaf extract on clinical isolates of multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Indian Journal of Experimental Bioliology. 46:41-46.
Anibijuwon II and Udeze OA (2009). Antimicrobial Activity of Carica papaya (Paw-paw Leaf) on Some Pathogenic Organisms of Clinical Origin from South Western, Nigeria. Ethno Botanical Leaflets. 13: 850-864.
Aravind G, Debjit B, Duraivel S and Harish G (2013). Traditional and Medicinal Uses of Carica papaya. Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies. 1(1): 7-15.
Ayoola PB and Adeyeye A (2010). Phytochemical and nutrient evaluation of Carica papaya (pawpaw) leaves. International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Studies. 5 (3): 325- 328.
Baskaran C, Ratha-bai V, Velu S and Kumaran K (2012).The efficacy of Carica papaya leaf extract on some bacterial and a fungal strain by well diffusion method. Asian Pacific Journal Tropical Diseases. S658-S662.
Begum M (2014). The phytochemical and pharmacological investigation of Carica papaya leaf. BSc. Dissertation (Unpublished), Department of Pharmacy, East West, University, Dhakar.
Bais HP, Walker TS, Schweizer HP, Vivanco, JM (2002). Plant Phy.Biochem.40: 983-995.
Biswas B, Kimberly FM, Dwaye D and Anand Y (2013). Antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of Guava (Psidium guajava) on two Gram positive and two Gram negative bacteria. International Journal of Microbiology. 2: 7.
Doughari JH, El Mahmud AM and Manzara S (2007). Studies on the antibacterial activities of root extract of Carica papaya L. African Journal of Microbiology Research. Pp. 037-041.
Fajimi AK, Taiwo AA, Ayodeji H, Adebowale EA and Ogundola FI (2001). Therapeutic trials on gastrointestinal helminthes parasites of goat using paw seeds as a drench. Proceeding of the International Conference on sustainable crop, Livestock production for improved livelihood and Natural Resource Management, West Africa. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA).
Hassan SW, Umar RA, Ladan MJ, Nyemike P, Wasagu RSU, Lawal M and Ebbo AA (2007). Nutritive Value, Phytochemical and Antifungal Properties of Pergularia tomentosa L. (Asclepiadaceae). International Journal of Pharmacology. 3(4): 334-340.
Ifesan BOT, Fashakin JF, Ebosele F and Oyerinde AS (2013). Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Selected Plant Leaves. European Journal of Medicinal Plants. 3(3): 465-473.
Kafaru E (1994). Immense help formative workshop. In: Khan R, Islam B, Akram M, Shakil S, Ahmad A, Ali MS, Sadiqui M and Khan AU (2008). Antimicrobial Activity of Five Herbal Extracts against Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) strains of Bacteria and Fungus of Clinical Origin. Molecules.13.
Kareem KT, Kareem SO, Adeyemo OJ and Egberongbe RK (2010). In-vitro antimicrobial properties of Bridelia ferruginea on some clinical isolates. Agriculture and Biological Journal of North America.1(3): 416-420.
Kim S and Fung YV (2004). Antibacterial effect of crude water soluble Arrow root (Peurariae radix) tea extracts on food borne pathogens in a liquid medium. Letters in Applied Microbiology. 39(4): 319 – 325.
Kowser M. M and Fatema N (2009). Determination of MIC and MBC of selected azithromycin capsule commercially available in Bagladesh. The Orion Medical Journal. 32(1): 619-620.
Kurtz MB, Heath IB, Marrinan J, Dreikhorn S, Onishi J and Douglas C (1994). Morphological effects of lipopeptides against Aspergillus fumigatus correlate with activities against (1,3)-beta-D-glucan synthase. Antimicrob. Agents Chem. 38 (7): 1480-1489.
Marchese A and Shito GC (2001). Resistance patterns lower respiratory tract pathogens in Europe. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents.16: 25-29.
Marshall EU, Stephen CU, Emmanuel UO and Chizaram EA (2015). Antimicrobial screening and phytochemical analysis of Carica papaya Leaf extracts. Standard Research Journal of Microbiological Sciences. 2(1): 001-004.
McGaw LJ, Jager AK and Staden JV (2000). Antibacterial, anti-helminthes and anti-amoebic activity in South Africa medicinal plants. Journal of Ethanopharmacology. 72 : 247 – 263.
Mello VJ, Gomes MT, Lemos FO, Delfino JL, Andrade SP, Lopes MT and Salas CE (2008). The gastric ulcer protective and healing role of cysteine proteinases from Carica candamarcensis. Phytomedicine.15: 237–244.
Mukhtar MD. And Tukur A (1999). In-vitro screening activity of Pistia stratiutes extract. NISED Journal. 1(1): 5 – 6.
Nirosha N and Mangalanayaki, R. (2013). Antibacterial Activity of Leaves and Stem Extract of Carica papaya L. Inter. J. Adv. Pharmacy, Bio. Chem. 2(3): 473-476.
Nostro A, Germano, MP, D’angelo V. Mariano A and Lanattel MA (2000). Extraction method and bioautography for evaluation of medicinal plants antimicrobial activity. Letter in Applied Microbiology. 30: 379.
Okwu D and Okwu ME (2004).Chemical composition of Spondias mombin Linn. Plant parts. J. Sustain. Agric Environ. 6 (2): 140-147.
Onwuliri FC and Wonang DL (2005). Studies on the combined Antimicrobial action of Ginger (Zingiber officinale L.) and Garlic (Allium sativum L) on some Bacteria. Nigeria J. Bot. 18: 224-228.
Orhue PO and Momoh ARM (2013). Antibacterial activities of different solvent extracts of Carica papaya fruit parts on some gram-positive and gram negative organisms. International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research. 2(4): 42–47.
Poole (2001). Multidrug efflux pump and antimicrobial resistance in Pseudomonas and related organisms. Journal of molecular, Microbials and Biotechnology. 3:255 - 264.
Robinson S (1995). Kandungan organic Tumbuhan tinggi diterjemahkan Padnawinata K, Edisike-6 Institute Technology, Bandung, Bandung 193.
Sikandar KS, Tasveer ZB, Kanwal N, Syed, AG and Shahama UK (2013). Qualitativephytochemical screening and antifungal activity of Carica papaya leaf extract against human and plant pathogenic fungi. International Research Journal of Pharmacy. 4 (7).
Sofowora A (1993). Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. Spectrum Books Ltd., Ibadan, Nigeria, 289pp.
Stray F (1998). The National Guide to Medicinal Herbs and Plants. Tiger Books International, London. pp.12-16.
Srinivasan D, Perumalasamy LP and Nathan ST (2001). Antimicrobial activity of certain Indian medicinal plants used in folkloric medicine. Journal of Ethanopharmacology. 94: 217-222.
Tewari BB, Subramanian G and Gomathinayagm R (2014). Antimicrobial Properties of Carica papaya (Papaya) Different Leaf Extract against E. coli, S. Aureus and C. albicans. American Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics.
Tsuchiya H, Sato M, Miyazaki T, Fujiwara S, Tanigaki S, Ohyama M, Tanaka T and Iinuma M (1996). Comparative study on the antibacterial activity of phytochemical flavanones against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 50: 27-34.
Wadood A, Gufran M, Jamal BS, Naeem M, Khan A,Ghaffar, R. and Asnad (2013). Phytochemical Analysis of Medicinal Plants Occurring in Local Area of Mardan. Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry. 2:14-44.
Zaid MA, Shama KK. And Rizvi SI (2002). Effect of (-) epicatechin in modulating calicum-atpase activity in normal and diabetic human erythrocytes. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry. 17(2): 27 – 31.