Greener Journal of Cell and Animal Biology

Open Access

Maigari et al

Greener Journal of Cell and Animal Biology Vol. 2 (1), pp. 001-007, July 2015.

  ISSN: 2354 - 2322 © 2013 Greener Journals

Research Paper

Manuscript Number: 022315033



Body Condition Scores as Putative Diagnostic tool for African Animal Trypanosomosis among Ruminants Slaughtered at Kano Central Abattoir


Maigari Ahmad Kabir1, 2*,  Bichi Armaya'u Hamisu2, Sani Haruna Hamisu3, Malami Abubakar Inuwa¹, Musa Amina Muhammad4, Jega Zainab Hassan5, Abubakar Salamatu4, Liman Samira Bello4, Sani Amina4, Jarmai Kabiru Yakubu4, Gide Anas1


¹North West zonal Headquarter, Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research, PMB 1147, Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria.

2Department of Biological Sciences, Bayero University, Kano.

3School of General Studies,Kano State Polytechnic, Kano.

4Trypanosomiasis Research Department, Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research, No. 1 Surame Road, Unguwan Rimi GRA, Kaduna, Nigeria.

5Epidemiology Unit, Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research, Suleja, Niger State, Nigeria.


*Corresponding author: MAIGARI Ahmad Kabir, +2348036028452, akabirum @


Background: The study assesses the carrier status of Trypanosomosis in ruminants brought for slaughter at Kano Central Abattoir between June and November, 2012.


Methods: Standard trypanosome detection methods in addition to Body Conditioning Scores (BCS) were used to detect trypanosomes in the blood samples collected randomly at slaughter from 385 ruminants of different sexes and breeds. Packed Cell Volume (PCV) of the animals was also examined.


Results: Infection rates of 1.24% and 0.70% occurred in large and small ruminants, respectively, with an overall infection rate of 1.94%. Prevalence in cows (3.17%; p<0.05) exceeded that of bulls (0.056%; p<0.05) with Zebu cows having the highest infection rates (5.13%, p<0.05) followed by Zebu bulls (1.08%, p<0.05) while no trypanosomal infection was detected in the Sokoto Gudali cattle examined. Male sheep had prevalence of 2.04% while female sheep and all the goats examined did not show any trypanosomal infection. Mean PCV of infected cattle and sheep appeared lower (24±0.3, 19±0.1) than the mean PCV of non-infected cattle and sheep (33±0.7, 27±0.3). Single Trypanosoma vivax accounted for the highest infection (0.78%; p<0.05) while mixed infection involving T. congolense and T. vivax accounted for the least (0.26%; p<0.05) infection.


Conclusion: The study underscores the role of Body Conditioning Scores as preliminary diagnostic tool for the lucid determination of trypanosomosis in ruminants. The results also, confirmed the prevalence of trypanosomosis in Kano Central Abattoir and could serve as a basis for future researches on animal trypanosomosis in the Abattoir.


Key words: Body Condition Scores, Trypanosomosis, Ruminants, Kano, Abattoir.

Post-review Rundown

View/get involved, click [Post-Review Page]


Abenga, J.N., Sanda S. A., Ezebuiro O. G. C. (2004) The Effect of T. congolense and T.brucei mixed Infection on the pattern of Haematological changes in Mixed Tryponosomiasis Infections. African Journal of Clinical and Microbiology: Vol. 6 (3):193-197.


Adama, J., Usman A., Adeyemi R. A., Maigida, R. (2010) Incidence of trypanosomes among white Fulani and Sokoto Gudali breeds of cattle in Niger state, Nigeria. J. Vet. Sci. 8(1):22-25 Accessed Jan. 23rd, 2013 from


Anosa,V.O (1983) Haematological and Biochemical changes in human and Animal Trypanosomosis,Parts 1 and 11, revue d’ elevage et de medicine ve’ teirinaire des pays Tropicaux 41(2): ( June 1988),65-78,ISSN 151-164.


Bala, A.Y., Adamu T. and Bunza, M.D.A (2013) The use of body condition score (BCS) in detecting camelid trypanosoa evansi infection in sokoto state, Nigeria. Nat. cong. On tryp. And ocho. Res, zoonotic / public health imp., cont. and erad in Nigeria 35:36. 


Cochran, W.G. (1963). Sampling Techniques, 2nd Ed; New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Retrieved 17th March, 2012 from www.edis.Ifas.uf/educ/pd006.


Dargie, J. D., Murray P. K., Max M., Grim Shaw W. R. T. and Mc Intyre W. I. M. (2009) Bovine Trypanosomiasis: The red cell Kinetics of Ndama and Zebu cattle infected with T. congolonse. Parasitology vol.78, Issue 03:271-286. Accessed January 15th,  2013. from


Dipeolu, O. O. (1975) Survey of blood parasites in domestic animals in Nigeria.Bull Anim. Health Production Afr. 23:155-64.


Edwards E.E., Judd J.M and SquareF.A. (1956) Observation on trypanosomasis in domestic Animal in West Africa the effect on erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Plasma protein biluribin ,blood sugar, osmotic fragility ,body weight and temperature in goats ,and sheep infected with T.Vivax , T. Congolense  and T. brucei Annals of Tropical Medicine andParasitology 50(2) : (December 1957) 242-251-ISSN 0003- 4983


Esuruoso, G. O. (1973) The Epizootiology, prevalence and economic aspects of bovine trypanosomiasis in Nigeria. Paper presented at the 77th US Animal Health Association Meeting, St. Louis.


Ezeani, M. C., Okoro H., Anosa V.O, Onyenekwe C. C., Meludu S. C., Dioka C.E and Azikiwe, C. C. (2008) Immunodiagnosis of bovine trypanosomiasis in Anambra and Imo states, Nigeria, using enzyme-linked immunosorbentassay:Zoonotic implications to human health. Journal Vector Borne Dis.45:292-300.


Ezebuiro, O. G. C., Abenga, J. N., Ekejindu G. O. C. (2009) The prevalence of trypanosome infection in trade cattle, goats and sheep slaughtered at the Kaduna abattoir. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental microbial.. 10(1): 15-25.


Food and Agricultural Organization, FAO (1992) Trypanotolerant Cattle and Livestock Development in West and Central Africa. Vol.1. Int. Supply & Demand for Breeding Stock. FAO  Ani. Production Health Paper No. 67/1 Rome.


Food and Agricultural Organization, FAO (2007) Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Control:    Retrieved          June, 2011  from


Gebreyohannes M and Legesse F. (2014) Epidemiological Study of Bovine Trypanosomiasis in Woliso Woreda, Ethiopia. J Anim Sci Adv, 4(5):833-838.


Gumel, M.A, Manu A. Y. and Qadeer M. A. (2011) Some Aspects of the Prevalence of Bovine Trypanosomosis in Muri district, Taraba State, Nigeria. BEST Journal 8(2):166-169.


Herd, D.B., and Sprott L.R (1986) Body condition, nutrition and reproduction of beef cows. Texas A&M Univ. Ext. Bull. 1526.


I. L. C. A. (1983) Annual Report. Humid Programme, Ibadan, Nigeria.


Jawonisi, I. E. (1986). Present status of tsetse (Glossina) distribution in Nigeria. 2nd National conference on Haemoparasitic Diseases and their vectors, 1986. Zaria, Nigeria.


Kalu, A.U and Lawani F. A. (1996) Observations on the Epidemiology of Ruminant Trypanosomiasis in Kano State, Nigeria. Rev. Elev. Med. Vet-Pays Trop. 49(3): 213 – 217. Dept. of Vet.Pub.Health and Preventive Med. UNIMAID, Nigeria.


Losos, G.J (1986) Trypanosomiasis In: Infections Tropical Diseases of Domestic Animals. Longman and Scientific Tech. Pp. 218-233.


Majiwa, P. A., Webster P. (1987) A Repetitive deoxyribonucleic acid Sequence Distinguishes Trypanosoma simiae From T. congolense. Parasitol 35:43-58.


Mc Lennan, K. J. R.(1956) The Nigerian tsetse and trypanosomiasis Unit, Annual Report, 1955/1956.


Murray, M.,P. K. Murray and W.I.M. McIntyre (1977) An Improved Parasitological Technique for the diagnosis of African Trypanosomiasis. Trans.R.Soc.Trop.Med.Hyg.,71:325-326.


Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research, NITR (2010) Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Research. NITR Publication.


NITR/NARP (1996) NITR Report for External Review. Meeting of NARP.Nov., 1996 NITR Annual Report.


Oluwafemi, R.A., Ilemobade A. A., Laseinde E. A. O. (2008) Prevalence of Tsetse fly and Bovine Trypanosomisis in the BICOT Area within Lafia L.G.A. of Nassarawa State, Nigeria. J. Agr. and Soc. Res. Vol.8, no.1.


Omotainse, S.O., Kalejaiye J. O., Dede P. M. and Dada A. J. (2004) The Current Status of Tsetse and Animal Trypanosomiasis in Nigeria. J. Vet. Sci: 1-7.


Onyiah, J.A. (1997) African Animal Trypanosomiasis. An Overview of the Current Status in Nigeria. Trop. Vet., 15:111-116.


Opasina, B. A., Ekwuruke, J. O. (1988) Trypanosomiasis in Nigerian trade cattle: Short communication. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 19:251-252.


Paris, J., Murray M. and Mc Odimba F.(1982) A Comparative Evolution of the Parasitological Techniques Currently Available for the Diagnosis of African Trypanosomiasis in Cattle. Acta Trop 39:307-316 Retrieved 1st March, 2112 from


Roelants, G. E., Fumoux F., Pinder M., Queral  R., Bassinga A., Authie E. (1987) Identification and selection of cattle naturally resistant to African trypanosomiasis. Acta. Trop. 44(1):55-66.


Salim, B., Bakheit M. A., Salih E., Kamau J., Nakamura I., Nakao R., Sugimoto C. (2011) An Outbreak of Bovine Trypanosomiasis in the Blue Nile State, Sudan. Short report. Parasites and Vectors, 4:74


Samdi, S.M., Fajinmi A. O., Kalejaiye J. O. (2011) Prevalence of Trypanosomiasis in cattle Slaughtered in Kaduna Central Abattoir. Asianj. Anim. Sci. 5(2):162-165.


Tawah, C. L. and Rege, J. E. O (1996) Gudali cattle of West and Central Africa. FAO Animal Genetic Resources information Bulletin. 17:159-170. Accessed January 23rd, 2013 from


Trail, J.C.M., Sones K. , Jibbo J., Durkin D.E., Light,  Murray M.  (1985)  Productivity of Boran Cattle Maintained by Chemoprophylaxis Under Trypanosomiasis Risk ILCS Res. Rep. No. 9 Addis-Ababa, Int. Livestock Centre for Africa.


Vogelnest, L., and Woods R. (2008) Medicine of Australian Mammals. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria, Australia.


Woo, P.T.K (1971) Evaluation of Haematocrit Centrifuge and other Techniques for Field Diagnosis of Trypanosomiasis and Filariasis.Acta.Trop., 28:293 303.


World Health Organization,WHO (2010) African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness). Accessed July, 2011 from