Chisango and Maposa
Greener Journal of Ecology and Ecosolution, vol. 3 (1), pp. 001-012, April 2016.
ISSN: 2384-6356 © 2015 Greener Journals
Manuscript Number: 011916014
Effects of Human-Wildlife Conflict on Agricultural Productivity, Post Fast Track Land Reform Program in Zimbabwe: A Case of Gwayi Conservancy and Resettlement Areas Bordering Hwange National Park
1Chisango Future Fortune T and 2*Maposa Angela
1 Senior Lecturer Faculty of Agriculture, Zimbabwe Open University, Zimbabwe.
The study aimed at investigating reasons for Human Wildlife Conflict and its impact on agricultural productivity, particularly post Fast Track Land Reform in Zimbabwe, with reference to Gwayi conservancy which borders Hwange national park in Matabeleland North province. Fifty farmers were purposively selected from a ward’s total population of 620 resettled households to generate primary data through a questionnaire and interviews. Secondary data was gathered from records and archival material from responsible authorities such as parks and wild life authority and its partners. The study examined issues relating and emanating from human – wildlife conflict, its effect especially those caused by livestock and crop destruction, sophisticated poaching such as cyanide poisoning: its magnitude and possible effects on extinction of endangered species in Zimbabwe. Generated and analyzed data revealed that for as long as human settlement expand into sanctuaries meant to be the natural habitat for wildlife, finding lasting solution to human-wildlife conflict will pose serious challenges, and aggravating the problem will be the incessant destruction of the environment impacting negatively on agricultural productivity as wild life and man compete for cultivated crops and livestock for food resources. It was therefore recommended that the need for conservation should be emphasized and consolidated through habitat management training and educating the new settlers on the need for conservation and economic gains attached to wildlife, such as tourism and game meat marketing which should foster tolerance and coexistence between wildlife and the new farmers.
Key words: Human Wildlife Conflict, agricultural productivity, Fast Track Land Reform, records and archival material, sophisticated poaching, cyanide poisoning, sanctuaries, natural habitat.
Baird T D, (2014). Conservation and unscripted development: proximity to park associated with development and financial diversity, Ecology and Society 19(1): 4. http://dx.doi.org/10.5751/ES-06184-190104
Brandon K, Redford K and Sanderson S, (1998). Parks in peril: people, politics, and protected areas, Island, Washington, D.C., USA.
Barnes R.F.W, Boafo Y, Nandjui A, Umaru-Farouk D, Hema E.M, Danquah E & Manford M, (2003). An overview of crop-raiding by elephants around the Kakum Conservation Area, Elephant Biology and Management Project, Africa Program, Washington, DC, USA, Conservation International
Barnes, R.F.W, (1996). The conflict between humans and elephants in the central African forests, Mammal Review, 26(2): 67–80.
Clerici N, Hugh E & Grégoire J M, (2005). Assessing modifications in burned areas characteristics to monitor land- use changes and landscape fragmentation around the W.A.P. Complex of protected areas (West Africa). Presented at the conference Landscape Ecology: Pattern and Process: What is the Present State of Knowledge?, Nice, France 14–16November.
Di-Stefano, (2004). 'Human-wildlife conflict worldwide: collection of case studies, analysis of management strategies and good practices. Rome, FAO
Duffy, (2003). Poverty, Poaching and Trafficking: What are the links? Evidence on Demand with the assistance of the UK Department for International Development (DFID) contracted through the Climate, Environment, Infrastructure and Livelihoods Professional Evidence and Applied Knowledge Services (CEIL PEAKS) programme, jointly managed by HTSPE Limited and IMC WorldwideLimited.
FAO, (2009a). Human-wildlife conflict: elephant – technical manual, Wildlife Management Working Paper 11.
Rome. Fergusson R.A, (2002). Living with a wild predator: managing human/crocodile conflict in Africa. A proposal for an IUCN/SSC Crocodile Specialist Group initiative to provide technical support for the investigation and alleviation of human/crocodile conflict in several African countries, Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter, (21)4: 17–21
Friedman T, (2007). The world is flat: a brief history of the twenty-first century. New York, USA, Farrar, Straus and Giroux
Kiss A, (1990). ''Living with wildlife: Wildlife resource management with local participation in Africa'', Technical Paper, 130, World Bank.
Marks S.A, (1984). The Imperial Lion: Human Dimensions of Wildlife Management in Africa. Westview Press, Boulder.
McCarthy M, (2006). The century of drought, The Independent (UK), 4 October
Mishra C, (1997). Livestock depredation by large carnivores in the Indian trans- Himalaya: conflict perceptions and conservation prospects. Environmental Conservation, 24(4): 338–343.
Mishra C, Allen P, McCarthy T, Madhusudan M, Bayarjarkal A & Prins H, (2003). The role of incentive programs in conserving the snow leopard. Conservation Biology, 17(6): 1512–1520
Moyo S, (2005). ISS / UNDP Land poverty and public action policy paper no. 11. Land policy poverty reduction and public action Zimbabwe Sept 2005
Moyo S, (2000). Land reform under structural adjustment in Zimbabwe; land use changes in Mashonaland Province. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet ; Uppsala
Ogada O.O & Ogada D.L, (2004) Factors influencing levels of carnivore-livestock conflicts in Samburu Heartland and proposed mitigation measures, unpublished consultancy report for African Wildlife Foundation
Siex K.S & Struhsaker T.T, (1999) Colobus monkeys and coconuts: a study of perceived human–wildlife conflicts. Journal of Applied Ecology, 36(6): 1009–1020.
Silkiluwasha F, (1998). Biodiversity Conservation in Lake Manyara biosphere reserves. A paper presented at the 4th Braaf Workshop: 30th March - 2nd April 1998. Arusha, Tanzania.
United Department of State, (2007). Embassy of the United States, Harare, Zimbabwe: Zimbabwe country-specific information. Available at: harare.usembassy.gov/service/ Zimbabwe-country-specific-information/
Vasagar J, (2007). Safari Britons killed by charging elephant, The Guardian, 27 March.
Wunder M.B, (1997). Of elephant and men: crop destruction, CAMPFIRE, and wildlife management in the Zambezi valley, Zimbabwe. Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA, Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan.
The Zimbabwe Sunday Mail, 19 April and November, (2015) EMVIRONMENT: Wildlife-human in conflict | The Sunday Mail.