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Onyidoh et al

Greener Journal of Ecology and Ecosolution, vol. 4 (1), pp. 001-009, March 2017.

ISSN: 2384-6356  © 2017 Greener Journals

Research Articles

Manuscript Number: 022817029



Concentrations and Risk Evaluation of Selected Heavy Metals in Water and African Catfish Clarias gariepinus in River Kaduna, Nigeria


Onyidoh Henry Eric*, Ibrahim Rasaq, Ismail Falalu Muhammad & Muhammad Ahmad Muhammad


Department of Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, A.B.U, Zaria.


Freshwater is a vital medium by which fish for human consumption are cultured, thus, preserving its quality is essential. The presence and bioaccumulation pattern of some heavy metal concentrations in wild African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) muscles and water samples, collected from River Kaduna during the dry season month of December was assessed, to determine their concentrations, physico-chemical parameters, and risk evaluation of selected metals and their effects on fish quality. Analysis was carried out using standard analytical procedures and methods. Risk assessment for Fe, Pb, Ni, Cd, and Hg were based on average daily dose, hazard quotient, and cancer risk was also determined. Result showed that physico-chemical parameters, were within WHO recommended threshold limits, and mean concentrations of heavy metals followed the order Fe>Pb>Hg>Ni>Cd. Carcinogenic risk () via ingestion of fish muscles for Pb, Hg and Cd were higher than the acceptable limit (10-6). Anthropogenic activities, especially indiscriminate waste disposal were suggested as the main contributor to environmental pollution. Findings reveals possible health implications, thus constant surveillance was suggested to guide appropriate response.


Key words: River Kaduna, Heavy metals, Physico-chemical parameters, Risk Assessment.

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