Nwankwo et al
Greener Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health Vol. 3 (2), pp. 014-021, November 2015.
ISSN: 2354-2381 © 2015 Greener Journals
Manuscript Number: 102615149
Nutrient and Phytochemical Determination of Two Under-Utilized Green Leafy Vegetables Cassia tora and Sesamum indicum with Medicinal Potentials in Mubi Adamawa State of Nigeria
Nwankwo Rita N.1, Buba Danrimi2, Nwankwo Jerry I.3
1Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Federal polytechnic Mubi.
2Department Of Food Science And Technology Federal Polytechnic Mubi
3Department of Physiology, Anambra State University Uli.
Objective: The study investigated the nutrient and phytochemical compositions of two under-utilized green leafy vegetables (Cassia tora and Sesamum indicum ) in Mubi town, Adamawa state Nigeria and their medicinal potentials.
Materials and methods: One kilogramme each of fresh Cassia tora and Sesamum indicum leaves was separately plucked cleaned and pulverized using gallenkamp mixer kenwood. Standard methods (AOAC, 2000) were used to determine the proximate, some minerals, vitamins and phytochemical compositions of the leaves in triplicates. Means and standard error of the means of the triplicate determinations were calculated with Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20.
Results: The proximate principles revealed that Cassia tora and Sesamum indicum leaves contained high moisture (82.38% and 95.09%), low protein (1.64% and 1.62%), an appreciable amount of fibre (2.16% and 1.90%), carbohydrates (13.71% and1.04%) and ash (0.36% and0.33%). The two vegetables had low levels of fat (0.05% and 0.06%) respectively. Mineral values were calcium (4.97mg and 0.63mg), phosphorus (197.63mg and 172.50mg), iron(0.59mg and 0.26mg), potassium (2.67mg and 0.87mg), zinc (0.59mg and 0.51mg) respectively. Vitamins were β-carotene (19.65 µg and 11.57 µg), ascorbate (18.96mg and 15.60mg), vitamin B1 (1.53mg and11.57mg), B2 (2.13mg and1.87mg), niacin (1.45mg and 0.74mg) and vitamin E (28.79mg and 25.89mg) respectively. Phytochemicals present in the leaves include alkaloids (0.15% and 0.03%), glycosides (0.01% and 0.01%) tannins (0.41% and 0.40%), saponins (0.12% and 0.06%), flavonoids (0.02% and 0.01%) respectively.
Conclusion: Cassia tora had higher levels of β-carotene (19.65 µg), ascorbate (18.96mg), vitamin E (28.96mg), calcium (4.94mg), potassium (2.61mg), phosphorus (197.63mg) and most of the phytochemicals than Sesamum indicum. The vegetables contained significant quantities of fibre, β-carotene, vitamin C and E, calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, alkaloids, glycosides and saponins which have medicinal benefits. The medicinal potentials of the vegetables could be attributed to their rich nutrient and phytochemical constituents. More studies are needed to standardize the portion sizes of the vegetables for dietary management of diet related diseases based on their nutrients and health promoting constituents.
Key words: Cassia tora, Sesamum indicum, nutrients, phytochemicals, medicinal potentials.
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