Nwankwo et al
Greener Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health, Vol. 4 (1), pp. 009-012, January 2016.
ISSN: 2354-2381 © 2016 Greener Journals
Manuscript Number: 120415165
Evaluation of Iodine Content and Suitability of Common Salts Sold in Mubi Metropolis, Adamawa State, Nigeria
Nwankwo Rita Ngozi1*, Williams Bege1, Agim Mary1
1Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa state, Nigeria.
Background: Human beings and animals need iodine as an essential micronutrient. Deficiency of this mineral has a wide range of negative consequences referred to as iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). IDD has been recognized as a public health problem in Nigeria. Universal salt iodization (USI) was identified as a global strategy for elimination of IDD (UNICEF, WHO, 1994). IDD-Task Force (2002) reported cases of Salt of uncertain quality and iodine content making its way into the markets and finally the households.
Objectives: The study investigated the iodine content and suitability of common salts sold in Mubi market Adamawa state, Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: Five types of sachet salts (250mg) were randomly purchased from the market and coded S1 to S5. The manufacturing companies were noted. Titrometric method was used to determine the iodine and potassium iodate content of the salt samples. The National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) standard of > 30ppm iodine and > 50ppm potassium iodate content at retail level, was used as the standard to determine the suitability of the salt samples.
Results: Iodine content of the salt samples ranged from 12.80 – 35.70ppm and potassium iodate content ranged from 28.60 – 52.84 ppm. Samples S2 (35.70ppm, 52.84ppm) and S3 (34.24ppm, 51.60ppm) iodine and potassium iodate content respectively met the NAFDAC requirement while S1 (29.80, 47.66ppm), S4 (25.33, 30.75ppm) and S5 (12.80, 28.60ppm) iodine and potassium iodate content respectively, did not meet the standard for retail level salt iodization. S5 a locally made salt which had less than half the requirement for retail level salt iodization (12.80 ppm iodine) is not suitable for household consumption based on the NAFDAC standards.
Conclusion: Sixty percent of the salts sampled in Mubi market did not meet the NAFDAC Standard of iodine content and suitability at retail level. Consumers are advised to buy salts made by reputable companies. People are advised to take note of these facts when buying salts for household use. Further studies are required to ascertain the iodine content of the salts in the households.
Keywords: iodine content, sachet salts, suitability, Mubi market.
Adebayo, A.A. (2004). Mubi Region a Geographical synthesis 1st Edition, Yola Nigeria, Paraclate publishers, pp 1 -19.
Akunyili, D.N. (2007). Achieving and sustaining universal iodization; Doing it well through regulation and enforcement. Lessons Learned from USI in Nigeria. SCN News, pp 43 - 47.
Bohac - Dejong.J., Timmer, A & Sullivan, k. (2009). Use of Iodized salt in Processed Foods; Foods; Implication on USI strategies. Micronutrient Forum - Abstract & Posters. Beijing: Micronutrient Forum.
Diosady, L. Albert, J., Mannar, M. & Fitzgerald, S. (1998). Stability of iodine in iodized salt used for correction of iodine deficiency disorders. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 19 (3): pp 240-250.
Ekpechi, O.L. (1967). Pathogenesis of Endemic Goiter in Eastern Nigeria, British Journal of Nutrition, 21(3) pp 23-28.
Gulati, D. (2009). Promoting salt iodization among small salt producers in Rajasthan, India. Submitted to World salt Symposium 2009 - Beijing.
IDD-task Force, (2002). Report on situation Assessment of production, Marketing and consumption of iodized salt in Nigeria.
Joshi, S.A. (2002). Nutrition and Dietetics 2nd edition, New Delhi, Macgraw-publishing company Ltd, 236-248.
NAFDAC, (2003). Report on iodized salt monitoring at Distribution and Retail levels in Nigeria, December, 2003.
NAFDAC, (2004). Mission Statement from NAFDAC, appraisal and consolidation, 2004.
NAFDAC, (2009) . Iodine deficiency Disorders . The lancet.
Sullivan, K., Suchdev, P., & Grummer-Strawn, L. (2007 no 35). Achieving and sustaining USI: Doing it well through quality Assurance, Monitoring and impact Evaluation.SCN News, 48-53.
Untoro, J. (2006). Country Assessments. Retrieved from Network for sustained Elimination of iodine Deficiency. www.iodinenetwork.net
UNICEF, WHO, (27 January, 1994). World summit for children: Mid decade goal-iodine deficiency disorders, report from UNICEF and WHO Joint Committee on Health Policy Special Session. Geneva:UNICEF, WHO .
UNICEF,WHO, (1994). World summit for children: Mid decade goal-iodine deficiency disorders, report from UNICEF and WHO Joint Committee on Health Policy Special Session. Geneva:UNICEF, WHO
UNICEF (2009), State of the world children 2009. New York:
WHO, (2007). Salt as a Vehicle for Fortification , Report of Expert consultation Geneva ; WHO.
WHO, UNICEF (2007). Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination. A guide for program managers. Geneva; WHO.
UNICEF (May, 2008), Sustainable Elimination of iodine Deficiency , New York; UNICEF.