Greener Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health, Vol. 4 (2), pp. 044-054, October 2016.
ISSN: 2354-2381 © 2016 Authors
Manuscript Number: 082116131
Women’s Views on Knowledge and Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening among Women in Kaduna State, Nigeria
Mfuh Anita Yafeh*1 and Lukong Christopher Suiye2
1RN, PHN, PhD, FWACN, Lecturer, Department of Nursing Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
2FWACS, FACS, Department of Surgery, Usmanu Danfodio University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto Nigeria.
Cervical cancer is a major cause of death among women in Kaduna State. Knowledge and access to regular screening will reduce the incidence of the disease. This study was a community-based, qualitative study on women living in Kaduna State, Nigeria. It assessed women`s knowledge about cervical cancer screening and identified barriers affecting screening for cervical cancer among women in Kaduna State. The population of the study included women of reproductive age group between 15 and 45 years who were purposively selected. Qualitative technique of data collection using Focus Group Discussions were held for the women. The study took place within the three Senatorial Zones of the State. The results were transcribed, themes and patterns emerged, systematically and critically analyzed and results presented verbatim in quotations. The findings showed that various factors influenced utilization of cervical cancer screening among which was the fact that, majority of the respondents were not aware of the screening services, negative beliefs regarding the causation of cervical cancer and prevention, lack of finance, no symptoms, among others. Among those who were aware of the screening, male health personnels screening the females was a major barrier. Major factors identified that can improve screening for the women were, increasing awareness for women and female health personnels screening the women for cervical cancer among other reasons. It was therefore recommended that, information regarding cervical cancer and screening should be disseminated to the populace. Female health personnels should be trained on cheap screening methods such as Visual Inspection using Acetic acid which is a screening method suitable for low resource settings.
Key words: Barriers, Cervical Cancer, Knowledge, Screening, Women`s views.
Abiodun O.A., Olu-Abiodun O.O., Sotunsa J.O. and Oluwole F. A. (2013). Impact of health education intervention on knowledge and perception of cervical cancer and cervical screening uptake among adult women in rural communities in Nigeria. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 6(6), 637-643. BMC Public Health. www.academia.edw.acade [accessed January 13, 2014].
Adanu, R. M. K. (2002). Cervical cancer knowledge and screening in Accra, Ghana. J of Women's Health and Gender-Based Medicine, 11(6), 485-487, www.scirp.org/journal/Paper Information.aspx? PaperID=26890 [accessed March 3, 2012].
Adefuye P.O. (2006). Knowledge and practice of cervical cancer screening among female professional health workers in a sub-urban district of Nigeria. Nig Med Practitioner; 50(1), 19–22. www .bioline.org.br [acccessed February 6, 2012].
Adewole I. F. (2010). Cervical Cancer: Every sexually active woman is at risk On September 11, www.vanguardngr.com/2010· [accessed April 4, 2013].
Ahmedin, J.D.V.M., Siegel, R., Xu, J., Ward, E. (2010). Statistics. Cancer J of Clinicians. doi: 10.3322/caac.20073. PubMed, [accessed July 3, 2013].
Ajah L.O., Iyoke C.A., Ezeonu P.O., Ugwu G.O., Onoh R.C., Ibo C.C. (2015). Association between Knowledge of Cervical Cancer/Screening and Attitude of Teachers to Immunization of Adolescent Girls with Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine in Abakaliki, Nigeria. Amer J of Cancer Prevention. 3(1), 8-12. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-3-1-3. [accessed January 5 2016].
Anorlu R.I. (2008). Cervical cancer: the Sub-Saharan African perspective. Rep Health Matters, November, 16(32), 41-49. [accessed February 2, 2012].
Anyebe E.E., Opaluwa S.A., Muktar H.M., Philip F. (2014). Knowledge and Practice of Cervical Cancer Screening amongst Nurses in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Shika, Zaria. Research in Humanities and Soc Sci, 4 (27). [accessed 25th November 2014].
Basu P., Sarkar S., Mukherjee S., Ghoshal M., Mittal S., Biswas S. (2006). Women's perceptions and social barriers determine compliance to cervical screening: results from a population based study in India. Cancer Detection and Prevention; 30(4):369-74, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16963194 [accessed January 7, 2013].
Claeys P., Gonzalez C., Gonzalez M., Page H., Bello R.E, Temmerman M. (2002). Determinants of cervical cancer screening in a poor area: results of a population based survey in Rivas, Nicaragua. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 7(11), 935-941 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12390599 [accessed 18, May 2012].
Durosinmi, M.A. (2008). Cancer control in an economically disadvantaged setting; Nigeria. INCTR Newsletter. www.inctr.org/publications/2004_v05-n01_s02.shtml.[accessed May 19, 2008].
Ezem, B.U. (2009). Awareness and uptake of Cervical Cancer Screening in Owerri, South Eastern Nigeria. Annals of Afric Medicine, 6: 94-8. www.annalsafrmed. org/article.asp. [accessed August 3, 2012].
Federal Government of Nigeria, FGN (2003). National Policy on HIV/AIDS.
Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) (2004). Revised National Health Policy. Available at http://www.herfon.org/docs/Nigeria National Health Policy sept 2004.pdf. [accessed March 12, 2008].
Fort V.K. Makin M.S. Siegler A.J. (2011). Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening in Mulanje, Malawi: A Qualitative Study, https://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S17317, open access to scientific and medical research, Volume 2011:5 Pages 125—131, [accessed October 25, 2016].
Hyacinth I., Oluwatoyosi A., Adekeye, J., and Tolulope O. (2012). Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear Awareness and Utilization of Pap Smear Test among Federal Civil Servants in North Central Nigeria. Published online 2012, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov>pubmed, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046583.Epub 2012 [January 16, 2015].
Ibrahim I., Owoeye O., Kalada M.(2013). Cervical cancer screening among female undergraduates and staff in the Niger delta region of Nigeria. Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2013, 3, 61-66. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojog.2013.31014, http://www.scirp.org/journal/ojog,[accessed January 24, 2013].
James J. (2011). The Knowledge, Attitude, Practice and Perceived Barriers towards Screening for Premalignant Cervical Lesions among women aged 18years and above, in Songea Urban, Ruvuma. (Unpublished Masters theses). Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, [accessed January 24, 2014].
Kabir N. (2005). Knowledge, attitude and Practice of cervical cancer screening among medical workers in Usman Danfodio University Teaching Hospital. Niger Post Graduate Med J. 62(3), 2005; 179-182.
Maliti K. (2013). The menace of cervical cancer. Retrieved 15, June 2013 from http://www. thisdaylive.com/articles/the-menace-of-cervical -cancer/137197/, [accesses, June 15, 2013].
Mangoma J.F., Chirenje M, Z., Chimbari M.J., Chandiwana S.K. (2006). An assessment of rural women's knowledge, constraints and perceptions on cervical cancer screening: the case of two districts in Zimbabwe. African J of Rep Health, 10(1):91-103.
Mutyaba T., Mmiro F., Weiderpass E. (2006). Knowledge, attitudes and practices on cervical cancer screening among the medical workers of Mulago Hospital, Uganda. British Medical Council, Medical Education, 6 13 Mar 2006. doi: 10.1186/1472-6920-6-13, [accessed August 2,2014].
National Health Service. Cervical Screening Programme (2011). www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2047031,[accessed August 23, 2014].
Oche, M. O., Kaoje A. U., Gana G and Ango J. T. (2013). Cancer of the cervix and cervical screening: Current knowledge, attitude and practices of female health workers in Sokoto, Nigeria. Inter J of Med and Med Sci.. Vol. 5(4), pp. 184-190, www.academicjournals.org/IJMMS, [accessed January 20, 2016].
Ojiyi E.O., Dike, E.I. (2008). Knowledge and practice of cervical cancer screening at the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu. Public Health Med J 2(2):145-51, [accessed January 21, 2016].
Okeke, T.A.(1999). Epidemiological Studies of a cervical cancer Screening Programme Population. Sahel Medical Journal, 2(1); 30-33, www.ajol.info/index.php/njcp/article/download/51919/40560 [accessed May 25, 2012].
Okonofua F.(2007). HPV vaccine and prevention of cervical cancer in Africa. African J of Rep Health; 11(2):7-9. www.bioline.org.br/request?rh07015.
Olusegun K., Adepiti C. A. (2012). Knowledge of Cervical Cancer and Utilization of Pap Smear among Patients in a Tertiary Centre in South West Nigeria. Ibom Med J. ibommedicaljoural.com 3(2):56-60, [accessed March 11, 2013].
Oyedunni, S. A., Opemipo, O. M.(2012). Perception and utilization of cervical cancer screening services among female nurses in University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. The Pan African Medical J; 11:69.
Parkin D.M., Boyd L., Walker L,C. (2005). The fraction of cancer attributable to lifestyle and environmental factors in the UK in 2010. Br J Cancer;105(S2):S77-S81.
Rafindadi A,H,, Ifere D.I., Shittu S.O., Bako A.U., Olasinde T.A. (1999). A study of some aetiological factors in 41 cases of cancer of the cervix in Zaria. Niger Quart J of Hosp. 9(2):87–9, April-June,[accessed March 13, 2012].
Roberts A.A., Ayankogbe O.O., Osisanya T.F., Bamgbala A.O., Ajekigbe A.T., Olatunji B.S. (2004). Knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors among refugee women in Oru camp. Nigerian Medical Practitioner; 46(4):67-70. [accessed March 5, 2012] www.unilag.edu.ng/staffdirectorydetails.php?username=CM1407...
Saad A. A., Sabitu K. Suleiman S.H., Ahmed R. (2013). Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening among market women in Zaria, Nigeria. Niger Medical J| Vol. 54 | Issue 5 | September-October | 2013. [accessed January 23, 2014].
Udigwe G.O. (2006). Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening (Pap smear) among female nurses in Nnewi, South Eastern Nigeria. Niger J. of Clin Pract, 9(1):40-3. ir.muhas.ac.tz:8080/.../ 1/ the%20knowledge,%20attitude,%20...[accessed July 19, 2012].
Ujah I. (2013). Experts make case for Cancer care and management in Nigeria. Available at www.google.com
Wong L. P., Wong Y. L., Low W. Y., Khoo E. M. and Shuib R. (2008). Cervical Cancer Screening Attitudes and Beliefs of Malaysian Women who have Never had a Pap Smear: A Qualitative Study. International J of Behavioral Medicine, 15: 289–292, 1070-5503 print / 1532-7558 online, [accessed August 15, 2014].
World Health Organization, (2006).Prevention of cervical cancer. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 84(2):81-160. www.who.int/entity/bulletin/volumes/84/2/news20206/en/index.html, [accessed June 15, 2012].
WHO (2006b). Epidemiological Factsheet on HIV/AIDS and sexually Transmitted Infections, Nigeria. Available at http://www.who.int/globalatlas/predefined Reports/EFS PDFs/EFS2006 NG.pdf. Accessed on 6/5/2008.
World Health Organization (2010). National Cancer Control Programme. World Health Organization. Prevalence rate of cervical cancer in Nigeria. Available at World Health organization media.
Zayyan M. et al (2013). Cancer of the cervix in Zaria, Northern Nigeria, www.jbcrs.org/text.asp?2012/1/1/44/104296 [accessed May 12, 2012].
Call for Papers/Books
Call for Scholarly Articles
Authors from around the world are invited to send scholary articles that suits the scope of this journal. The journal is currently open to submissions and will process and publish articles monthly in two yearly issues.
The journal is centered on quality and goes about its processes in a very timely fashion. Seasoned editors/reviewers will be consulted to review each article(s), profer quality evaluations and polish the articles with expertise before publication.
Simply send your article(s) as an e-mail attachment to email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Call for Books
You are also invited to submit your books for online or print publication. We publish books related to all academic subject areas. Submit as an e-mail attachment to email@example.com.