Baraza et al
Greener Journal of Educational Research Vol. 6(2), pp. 052-066, April 2016
ISSN: 2276-7789 © 2015 Greener Journals
Manuscript Number: 032816069
Levels of Stress among Secondary School Teachers and its Implication on Students’ Academic Performance in Kenya: A Case Study of Kakamega North Sub County
Olive Taabu Baraza, *Enose MW Simatwa and Julius O Gogo
Department of Educational Management and Foundations, Maseno University.
Stress is part and parcel of living. The fact that one is living implies that he is experiencing some amount of stress. This means that stress affects performance. It is on this basis that models have been developed to measure levels of stress among employees. This study sought to investigate the levels of stress among public secondary school teachers and its implication on students’ academic performance in Kakamega North Sub-county, Kenya. This study employed the descriptive survey research method which aimed at establishing the levels of stress among teachers who use longitudinal approach in teaching. The study population consisted of 45 principals, 133 teachers and 1 Teachers Service Commission County Director from 45 public secondary schools that used longitudinal approach to teaching. Fisher’s formula (Mugenda & Mugenda, 2003) was used to determine the sample size of teachers. Holmes and Rahe’s model was adapted and used in data collection, besides interviews. Descriptive statistics in form of frequency counts, percentages and mean were used in data analysis. The study established that 6.06% of the teachers recorded low levels of stress, 37.37% recorded moderate levels of stress and 56.57% recorded high levels of stress. These results implied that students’ performance in the sub-county may be low because only 37.37% recorded moderate stress levels that are associated with better performance. Low and high stress levels are bound to lead to low productivity. The study recommended that school managers and administrators should device techniques of creating and maintaining optimal stress levels among teachers for purposes of improving and maintaining students’ academic performance.
Key Words: Levels, Stress, Secondary School Teachers, Implication, Students Academic Performance, Kakamega North, Sub County, Kenya.
Abirami V (2012). Levels of stress among college teachers with reference to Coimbatore district, Research world -Journal of Arts, Science and Commerce Vol. III, Issue 4 (2): 93-104.
Adeniyi S O, Fakolade O, Aremum, F O &AdeyinkaT (2010).Perceived Causes of Job Stress among Special Educators in Selected Special and Integrated Schools in Nigeria.New Horizons in Education, Vol.58 (2): 72-82.
Aftab M &Khatoon T (nd). Demographic differences and Occupational Stress of Secondary School Teachers European Scientific Journal March edition Vol. 8(5): 159-179.
Aikman S & Unterhalter E (2005). Beyond Access: Transforming policy and practicefor Gender Equality in Education. London: Oxford.
Alam M T &Farid S (2011).Factors Affecting Teachers Motivation.International Journal of Business and Social Science Vol. 2 (1): 298 -304.
Alan H S, Chan K, Chen & Elaine Y L Chong (2010). Work Stress of Teachers from Primary and Secondary schools in Hong Kong. Proceedings of the international multi-conference ofengineers and computer scientists Vol. III p.1-4.
Altangerel O, Ruimei W, Elahi E, Dash B (2015). Investigating theeffects of job stress on performance of employees.International Journal of Scientific and Technology.Research 4 (2):276-280.
Alemu Y, Teshome A, Kebede M &Regassa T (2014). Experience of stress among student-teachers enrolled in postgraduate diploma in teaching: The case of Haramaya University cluster centers, Ethiopia. African Educational Research Journal Vol. 2(3): 96-10.
Anbu A (2015). Professional Stress of Higher Secondary School Teachers. International journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development2(1):1-3.
Antoniou A, PloumpiA&Ntalla M (2013), Occupational stress and professional burnout in teachers of primary and secondary education: The role of coping strategies psychology 2013. Vol.4, No.3A: 349-355.
Anwar K, Ishak, M S, SadafK&Shafiq G (2012). Teachers’ Stress, Performance and Resources: The Moderating Effects of Resources on Stress & Performance. International Review of Social Sciences and Humanities Vol. 2 (2): 21-29
Areekkzhiyil S (2014). Factors influencing the organizational stress among teachers working in higher education sector in Kerala: An empirical analysis Journal Research and Pedagonic Interventions. Vol. 2(2):1-15.
Arul A A (2011). Study on causes and coping strategies for stress among college teachers with special reference to Coimbatore region. Indian Streams Research Journal Vol. I, issue.VI DOI 10.9780/22307850.
Ayoti C & Poipoi M W (2011, April). Factors contributing to stress among public secondary school teachers in Vihiga district, Kenya. International Journal of Current Research Vol. 33, (4):190-193.
Azmi N N L (nd). Teaching English and Stress: Teacher Trainees vs. Experienced Teachers Asian Transactions on Basic and Applied Sciences Vol. 02 Issue 05.ISSN: 2221-4291.
Beckley J (2011). The wellbeing of New Zealand teachers: The relationship between health, stress, job demands and teachers efficacy Thesis Massey University, Albany.
Betonio J R (2015). Stress factors and the teaching performance of the college faculty. International Journal of Social Science and Humanity. Vol. 5(7):651-655.
Bibi S, Yasmin B, Fozia B &Mola, D S (2012).The Nature and Impact of Teacher Stress in the Private Schools of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan.International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development Vol. 1 (20: 64-84.
Boyland L (2011). Job stress and coping strategies of elementary principals: A statewide study. Current Issues in Education, 14 (3):1-11.
Commer P J, Hanif R, Tariq S &Nadeem M (2011). Personal and Job Related Predictors of Teacher Stress and Job Performance among School Teachers Soc. Vol. 5 (2): 319-329.
Curtaz D M (1997). Perceived causes of stress and burnout as reported by elementary teachers at an urban school thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of therequirements for the degree of Masters of Arts in Education (Educational Leadership) at California state University, Sacramento fall.
Darmody M &Emer SS (2001). Job Satisfaction and Occupational Stress among Primary School Teachers and School Principals in Ireland. A Report Compiled by the ESRI on Behalf of the Teaching Council. The Economic and Social Research Institute Whitaker Square Sir John Rogerson’s Quay Dublin 2.
David K J (2014). Effects of Occupational Stress on Job Performance amongPublic Primary School Teachers in Kuresoi sub county, Nakuru county. A Research Projectsubmitted to the school of Business. Kabarak University.
Dlamin C S, Okeke C I &Mammen K J (2014). An Investigation of work –related stress among high school teachers in the Hhoho Region of Swaziland Mediterranean. Journal of Social sciences MCSER publishing, Rome-Italy Vol. 5 No 15 Doi:10.5901/mjss.2014.v5np 575.
Educational International European Trade Union Committee for Education (1999). Study on stress: The cause for teachers, its effects and suggested approaches to reduce it.
Eres F&Atanasoska T (2011). Occupational Stress of Teachers: A Comparative Study Between Turkey and Macedonia International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. 1 No. 7: 59-65. Journal of Educational Research and Essays Vol. 1(1): 1- 4 Jan. 2013.
Fisher M H (2011).Factors Influencing Stress, Burnout and Retention of Secondary Teachers.Current Issues in Education, 14(1). Retrieved from http://cie.asu.edu/
Frankel J R & Wallen E N (2009). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education, New York: McGraw-Hill Companies.
Fontana D (1989).Managing Stress.London: The British Psychological Society and Routledge Ltd.
Gebrekirstos H A (2015 July).Occupational stress among secondary school teachers and their coping strategies.The case of central zone of Tigray Region.International journal of Academic Research in Education and Review Vol. 3(6):143-157.
Govindarajan K A (2012). Study on the Level of Stress And Coping Strategies among Primary Teachers In Tamilnadu. International Multidisciplinary: 19-25.
Haastrup T, Ekundayo H T &Kolawole AO (2013). Stress among Secondary School Teachers in Ekiti State, Nigeria.Journal of Educational and Social Research Vol. 3 (2): 311.
Hadi A A, NaingN N, Daud A, Nordin R &Sulong M R (2009). Prevalence and factors associated with stress among secondary school teachers in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia Vol. 40 (6):1359-1370.
Hanif R, Tatiq S & Nadeem M (2011). Personal and job related predictors of teacher stress and job performance among school teachers. Pak J Commer. Soc Sci. Vol. 5(2):319-329.
Hassan A (2014). A study of occupational stress of primary school teachers.Educationia Confab Vol. 3(4):11-19.
Hasty R E (2007). Teacher attrition: the relationship between teachers’ stress and their intentions to leave their current positions. A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Educational Leadership. University of Phoenix.
Holmes T H &Rahe R H (1967).The Social Readjustment Rating Scale.An Inventoryof Common stressors. Journal of Psychosomatic research11(2):213-221.
Holeyannavar P G & ITAGI SK (2010). Stress and health status of primary school teachers Karnataka J. Agric. Sci., 23 (4): 620-624.
Howard S & Johnson B (2004). Resilient teachers: resisting stress and burnout. Social Psychology of Education, 7: 399-420.
Igharo K O (2013, March). Stress: effects on school leadership and its management. International Researcher Vol. 2 (1): 104-115.
Jaiyebo A O &Jibri MA (2008). Sources of Occupational Stress among Secondary School Administrators in Kano State, An International Multidisciplinary Journal, Ethiopia Vol. 2 (3): 116-129.
Kapoor D & Khanka S S (2013). Impact of stress on the performance of executives: An Empirical study Journal of Indian Research Vol. 1(4):100-104.
Kayastha D P &Kayastha R (2012). A study of occupational stress on job satisfaction among teachers with particular reference to corporate, higher secondary school of Nepal: Empirical study, NEPAL.
Kazi S S, Shah I M, & Khan A (2013).Occupational Stress, Performance and Emotional Intelligence: A Critical Review International Review of Social Sciences and Humanities Vol. 5, No. 1: 185-191 www.irssh.com.
Kendi R S (2012). Impact of occupational stress on head teachers’ tasks in secondary schools of Kisumu county, Kenya. A research project submitted for the degree of master of education in the school of educational management, policy and curriculum studies of Kenyatta University, Kenya.
Kerr R A, Breen J, Delaney M, Kelly C& M K (2011). "A Qualitative Study of Workplace Stress and Coping in Secondary Teachers in Ireland," Irish Journal of Applied Social Studies: Vol. 11: Issue. 1, (3): 1-38.
Khan A, Shah I M, Khan S, &Gul S (2012).Teachers’ Stress, Performance & Resources. The Moderating Effects of Resources on Stress and Performance: Review of Social Sciences and Humanities Vol. 2, (2): 21-29.
Karaj S &Rapti E (2013). Teacher job stress in Albania: Examining the role of students’ classroom disruptive behaviour and other factors in the school context, problems of education in the 21stCVol. 54: 1-8.
Karihe J N, Namusonge G S, Iravo M (2015). Effects of working facilities. Stress factors on the performance of Employees in public universities in Kenya. International journal of scientific and research publications, Volume 5(5):1925-1930.
Kapoor D & Khanka S S (2013). Impact of stress on the performance of executives: An empirical study journal of Indian Research Vol 1(4):100-104.
Klassen R M, Usher E L& Bong, M. (2010). 'Teachers' Collective Efficacy, Job Satisfaction, and Job Stress in Cross-Cultural Context', The Journal of Experimental Education, 78: (4): 464- 486.
Klassen R M & Chiu, M M (2010). Effects on Teachers’ Self-Efficacy and Job Satisfaction: Teacher Gender, Years of Experience, and Job Stress. Journal of Educational Psychology American Psychological Association Vol. 102, No. 3: 741–756.
Koross M C (2010). The influence of Teacher Stress on Academic Performance of Secondary School Students: A case of Eldoret Municipality.Unpublished Master of Philosophy in Guidance and Counseling School of Education.Moi University.
Kwaku N E (2012). Occupational stress and its effects on job performance: A case of Koforidua Polytechnic. Unpublished Masters of Business Administration.Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology.
Kyriacou C &Chien P (2004) Teacher stress in Taiwanese primary schools. Journal of Educational Enquiry, Vol. 5 (2): 86-104.
Leka S, Griffins A & Cox T (2003). Work Organization and Stress, protecting workers health series No. 3 Switzerland.
Manjula C (2007). A Study on Personality Factors Causing Stress among School Teachers M.Phil. Dissertation, submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the M. Phil degree in Psychology to Mother Teresa Women’s University, Kodaikanal.
Manzoor A, Awan H & Mariam H (nd). Investigating the impact of work stress on Job Performance. A study on textile sector of Faisalabad Asian Journal of Business and Management Sciences Vol. 2 (1):20-28.
Maphalala M C (2014). The Manifestation of Occupational Stress in the Teaching Profession: The Unheeded Voices of Teachers Mediterranean. Journal of Social Sciences MCSER Publishing, Rome-Italy Vol. 5 (10): 77-88.
Marther D, Elizabeth R E &Marthew M (1998). Relaxation and stress reduction work book Oakland: New Haerbinger.
Mncedisi C, Maphalala M C (2014). The manifestation of occupational stress in the teaching profession: The unheeded voices of teachers Mediterranean Journal of social sciences MCSER publishing, Rome-Italy Vol. 5(1). Doi:10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n1p77-88.
Menyezwa N MM (2005). The impact of stress on productivity of employees at the education training and development practices: MA management in the University of Pretoria.
Mondal J, Shrestha S &Bhaila A (2011). School Teachers: Job Stress and Job Satisfaction, Kaski, Nepal. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Health, Vol. 1: 1-7.
Mugenda M O & Mugenda G A (2003).Research Methods, Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches. Nairobi, ACTS Press.
Mosley D C, Megginson L C &Pietri P H (2001). Supervisory management: The art of empowering and developing people. Cincinnati: South Western college publishing, Dave Shaut.
Musyoka M, Ogutu M &Awino Z B (2012). Employee Stress and Performance of Companies Listed in the Nairobi Securities Exchange. DBA Africa Management Review 2012, Vol. 3 (1):115-129.
Naidoo K, Botha C J& Bisschoff C A (2013). Causes of Stress in Public Schools and its Impact on Work Performance of Educators J SocSci, 34(2): 177-190.
Ncube A C &Tshabalala T (2013). Impact on Performance of Teachers inNkayi District, Nova. Journal of Medical and Biological Sciences Vol. 1(1) :15-23.
Ngari S M, Ndungu A, Mwonya R, Ngumi O, Mumiukha C, Chepchieng M &Kariuki M (2013). Levels of stress among secondary school administrators and its implication in education management in Kenya.Academic Journals.pg 676-681.
Okeke C I O & Dlamin C C (2013). An empirical study of stressors that impinge on teachers in secondary schools in Swaziland South African Journal of Education; 33(1): 1-12.
Olaitan O L, Oyerinde O O & Kayode O O (2010).Prevalence of Job Stress among Primary School Teachers in South-west, Nigeria.African Journal of Microbiology Research March 4 2010 Vol. 4 (5): 1-9.
Olayiwola S (2008). Dimensions of Job Stress among Public Secondary.Thesis, ObafemiAwolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
Olivier M A J& Venter D.J.L (2003). The extent and causes of stress in teachers in the George region South African Journal of Education EASA Vol. 23(3): 186 – 192
Oriwa A T (2010). Beneficiary’s involvement in constituency development fund financed projects, a case of Nyando constituency, Kenya. Unpublished Master Thesis, University of Nairobi.
Oso Y W & Onen D (2005). Writing Research Proposal Report. Kisumu: Options printers and publishers.
Ozturk G (2011). Public Primary School Teachers’ Perceptions of their Working Conditions and Job Stress Cases from Istanbul and Stockholm.Institute of International Education Report 121 Institute of International Education Stockholm, Sweden.
Peltzer K, Shisana O, Zuma K, Wyk B V &Zungu-Dirwayi, N (2008). Job stress, job satisfaction and stress-related illnesses among South African educators, Stress and Health Wiley Inter Science.
Peretomode O (nd). Work and Stress among academic administrators of higher education Institutions in Delta State. European Scientific Journal . June Edition. Vol. 8 (13):29-46.
Pervez S & Hanif R (2003). Levels and Sources of work stress among women school teachers Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research Vol. 18(3-4):97-108.
Poornima R (2010). Emotional Intelligence Occupational Stress and Job Satisfaction of University Teachers in South India.UGC Major Research Project Department of Education, Bravidian University Kupal.
Professional Dialogue (2012). Stress in the Workplace: Causes, Effects & How to Cope Vol. 8, No. 1, www.acep-cape.ca.
Putter L (2003). Stress factors among teachers in schools of industry thesis, university of Zululand.
Raza A (2012). Relationship between Occupational stress and job satisfaction of faculty: The case of universities of Punjab. Ali Raza/Elixir Human resource management 43: 6913-6920.
Reddy G L&Anuradha R V (2013). Occupational Stress of Higher Secondary Teachers Working in Vellore District.International Journal of Educational Planning & Administration. ISSN 2249-3093 Vol. 3(1): 9-24 © Research India Publications.
Rintaugu E G (2013). Socio-Demographic Factors and Causes of Job Stress of Sports Personnel in Kenyan Universities.Human Resource Management Research (4): 166-172.
Richards J (2012). Teacher stress and coping strategies: A National Snapshot, The educational forum, 76:3pg 299-316.
Ritz R, Burris S, Brashears T &Fraze (2013). The Effects of a Time Management Professional Development Seminar on Stress and Job Satisfaction of Beginning Agri-science Teachers in West Texas.Journal of Agricultural Education Volume 54, Number 3: 1- 14
Salahudin S N, Abdullah M M, Hitam, S B (nd). Personal Characteristics, Occupational Stress and Turnover Intentions Among School Teachers in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. http://www.pdfcomplete.com
Santavirta N, Solovieva S& Theorell T (2007). The association between job strain and emotional exhaustion in a cohort of 1028 Finnish teachers.British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77:213-228.
Santiago M J, Otero-López J M, Castro C &VillardefrancosE (2008). Occupational stress in secondary school teachers: Examining the role of students’ disruptive behaviour and/or attitudes and the perceived difficulty in conflict management. European Journal of Education and Psychology 2008, Vol. 1, (1): 39-50.
Senthil K A, Mohan, S&Velmurugan R (2013). Causes of work stress of teachers in engineering education Asian journal of management research 406 Vol. 3 (2): 406-419.
Sindhu K P (2013). Factors influencing stress and coping strategies among college teachers in Karara state, trends and challenges in global business management. www.bonfring.org.
Skaalvik EM &Skaalvik S (2015). Job Satisfaction, Stress and Coping Strategies in the Teaching ProfessionInternational Education Studies; Vol. 8, (3): 181-192.
Shernoff ES, Mehta T G, Atkins M S, Torf R & Spencer J (2011). A Qualitative Study of the Sources and Impact of Stress among Urban Teachers School.Mental Health (2011) 3:59–69.
Shuttleworth M (2008). Descriptive Research Design.Http://www.experiment-resources.com Retrieved on 10/5/14.
Sichambo M N, Maragia S N, &Simiyu A M (2012). Causes of Burnout among Secondary School Teachers: A Case of Bungoma North District-Kenya. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development Vol. 1 (4): 195-2002.
Siddiqui F A (2012). Occupational stress in teachers: a comparative study of public and private schools in Hyderabad city. Journal of Education Vol.42 Issue 13:62-73.
Sohail T &Khanum (2000).Occupational Stress Scale Development.Pakistan Journal of Psychology. 31, 53-66.
Sprenger J (2011). Stress and Coping Behaviors among Primary School Teachers. A Thesis Presented To the Faculty of the Department of Health Education and Promotion East Carolina University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Arts.
Steyn GM & Kamper G D (2006). Understanding occupational stress among educators: an overview Africa Education, Vol. 3(1): 13-1.
Subbulaxmi S (2002). Productivity and stress Vol. 3: 26-28.
Sulaiman F R&Akinsanya P O (2014). Stress and instructors’ efficiency in Ogun State Universities: Implications for Nigerian educational policy. African Journal of Guidance and Counseling ISSN: 2142-6785 Vol. 1 (1): 001-00.
Sultana B (2012).The Nature and Impact of Teacher Stress in the Private Schools of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan.International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development , 82,83.
Sumathy V &Sudha G (2013). Teachers stress and type of school: Is there link? Research Expo International Multidisciplinary Research Journal Vol. 11(4):23-30.
Syed G A, AlainR & Muhammad A A (2012). Impact of organizational role stressors on faculty stress & burnout (An exploratory analysis of a public sector university of Pakistan).
Tahir Q (2011). Effectiveness of Teaching Stress on Academic Performance of College Teachers in Pakistan.International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. 1 (3): 123-129
Tashi K (2014). Occupational Stress among Bhutanese Teachers Asian Journal of Management Sciences & Education Vol. 3(2): 71-79 www.ajmse. leena-luna.co.jp.
Tasleema J, Muddasir H M, &Javied A (2013). A study of social and family role stress among primary school teachers of district Budgam, j&k, India.Journal of Educational Research and Essays Vol. 1(1): 1- 4 Jan.
TJjpti S, Avantika S, Prabha S (2007). Relationship of Stress and Job Satisfaction: A Comparative Study of Male and Female of Dual Career Teacher Couples of India working paper No.263.
Torres R M, Lawver R G & Lambert D M (2009). Job-related stress among secondary agricultural education teachers: A comparison study: Journal of Agricultural Education Vol. 50(3): 100 – 111.
Tsai E (2006). Sources and manifestations of stress in female kindergarten teachers International Education Journal, 7(3): 364-370.
Tsigilis N (2011). Burnout among physical education teachers in primary and secondary schools.International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. 1 (7): 53-5
Tuck B, Eleanor H, Manthei R, Adair V, Adair & Moore D (1999). Sources of occupational stress in New Zealand primary teachers AARE-NZARE Melbourne, Australia.
Vipinder N &Sarita A (2013).Occupational stress and health among teacher educators.International Journal of Advanced Research in Management and Social Sciences Vol. 2 (8): 1-13
Wangai M M (2012). Factors affecting job satisfaction among secondary school teachers of Mwatate District, Kenya. Project paper presented as a partial fulfillment for the requirement of the award of certificate in senior management course, Gtiembu, Kenya.
Yambo J M O, Kindiki JN &Tuitoek J K F (2012).Investigating High School Principals’ Stress in Relation to their Job Experience in Schools in Southern Nyanza Region of Kenya.International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, Vol. 1 (4): 44-63.
Young husband L J (2005). High School Teachers’ Perceptions of Their Working Environment in Newfoundland: Unpublished PhD thesis School of Graduate Studies
Yusoff R.B M, Kha A &Azam K (2013).Job Stress, Performance and Emotional Intelligence in Academia.Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research J. Basic. Appl. Sci. Res., 3(6):1-8.
Yusuf F A, Olufunke Y R & Valentine M D (2015). Causes and Impact of stress on teachers productivity as expressed by primary schoolteachers in Nigeria. Creative Education 6, 1937-1942.
Zedan R &Bitar J (2012).Stress and Coping Strategies among Science Elementary School Teachers in Israel.Universal Journal of Education and General Studies Vol. 2(3): 084-097.
Call for Papers/Books/Thesis
Call for Scholarly Articles
Authors from around the world are invited to send scholary articles that suits the scope of this journal. The journal is currently open to submissions and will process and publish articles in a timely fashion.
The journal is centered on quality and goes about its processes in a very timely fashion. Seasoned editors/reviewers will be consulted to review each article(s), profer quality evaluations and polish the articles with expertise before publication.
Simply send your article(s) as an e-mail attachment to firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com.