Greener Journal of Educational Research

Excellence and Timeliness


Choose Language

Ndolo et al

Greener Journal of  Educational Research Vol. 6(2), pp. 067-085April 2016

 ISSN: 2276-7789 

Research Paper

Manuscript Number: 032816070



Impact of Free Secondary Education Policy on Access to Secondary School Education in Kenya. A Case Study of Mbita and Suba Sub-Counties


1Maurice Aoko Ndolo, *1Enose MW Simatwa and

2Theodore MO Ayodo


1Department of Educational Management and Foundations, Maseno University.

2Faculty of Education, Arts and Theology, Kabarak University.


Free Secondary Education policy was introduced in Kenya in 2008 ostensibly to make secondary school education affordable so as to enhance access, transition and student academic performance. Studies in USA, USSR, Japan, Sub - Saharan Africa and some parts of Kenya like Kangundo sub county have revealed that  subsidized fees at all levels of education and particularly at primary and secondary school education levels enhance access, transition and academic performance. This seemed not to be the case in Mbita and Suba sub counties, where Gross Enrolment Rates were low at 4948 (33%) and 3546 (25%) respectively for the 2014 against national Gross Enrolment rate of 47.8%. The transition rates from 2010 to 2014 were 39.4%, 41.2%, 40.4%, 54.5%, 59.2% for Mbita Sub county, 56.2%, 54.4%, 61.1% and 59.2% for Suba Sub county which were lower than the national transition rates of 68.9%, 69.4%, 68.4%, 76.8% and 80.4% for the same period while academic performance mean scores in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education for 2011 and 2014 were low at 5.0 and 5.1 respectively. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of free secondary education policy on access to secondary school education in Mbita and Suba Sub-counties. The study involved the cohorts of students from the year 2008 to 2014, that is, the 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011 cohorts. Analysis of the impact of Free Secondary Education policy on access to secondary school education showed that free secondary education policy was inextricably connected with access to secondary school education. Also, it is noteworthy that the coefficient of Free secondary education funding in small secondary schools was statistically significant with a positive sign, which depicted that by one unit increase in Free Secondary Education funds, the increase in access was by 409.592 units, in medium secondary schools, the coefficient of Free Secondary Education funds was statistically significant with a positive sign which depicted that by one unit increase in Free Secondary Education funds, the increase in access was by 711.803 units and in large secondary schools, the coefficient of Free Secondary Education funds was statistically significant with a positive sign which depicted that by one unit increase in Free Secondary Education funds, the increase in access was by 3700.167 units. It is clear that on average, one unit increase in Free Secondary Education funds increased access to secondary school education by 947.489 units in Mbita and Suba Sub counties, Kenya. 


Key Words: Influence, Free Secondary Education Policy, Access, Mbita, SubaSub - Counties, Kenya.

Post-review Rundown

View/get involved, click [Post-Review Page]


Abagi, O. & Oanda, O.I. (2014). Fifty years of Education Development in Kenya. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation.


Amunga, J.,Amadalo, M.M., & Maiyo, J.K. (2010).The Influence of Schools’ Performance Index on Enrolment in Kakamega South District Secondary Schools.Kenya Journal of Education Planning,Economics and Management. Vol (2): 76- 91.


Alex,A.A. (2004). A Report on Universal Primary education by African Network Compaign on education for all.GB: Oxfam.


Aroni, M.R. (2013). Effects of Subsidized Secondary Education on Access to Public Secondary Schools in Nyamache Division, Kisii County, KenyaUnpublished M.ED Research Project, Kenyatta University.


Bold, T., Kimenyi, M., Mwabu, G.X.,&Sandefur, J. (2010).Does Abolishing Fees Reduce School.working paper WPS /


Chabari, E.B. (2010).Challenges Facing Effective Implementation of Free Secondary Education in Public Secondary Schools in Kangundo District, Kenya. Unpublished Master’s Thesis.Chuka University College.


Cohen, L., Manion, L. &Marison, K. (2000). Research methods in education. London: Routledge Falemer.


Combs, D.H. (1968). World Educational Crisis: A Systems approach, New York: Oxford University Press.


Elifson, K.W., Runyon, R.P. & Haber, A. (1990).Fundamental of Social Statistics.MC Graw Hill New york.


Glennerster, R., Kremer,M.,Mbiti I.,&Takavarasha,K.(2011).Access and Quality in the Kenyan Education System.UnpublishedReport Prepared for Office of the Prime Minister of Kenya.


Gacheru J (2012). Factors Influencing Transition Rates from public  primary schools to Secondary school level in Murang’a East District, Kenya. Department of Education Administration and Planning.Retrieved on 22nd February 2014 from


Gogo, J.O. (2003). Impact of Cost Sharing Strategy on Access, Equity and Quality of Secondary Education: A Case Study of Rachuonyo District. Unpublished M.Ed thesis, Maseno University.


Gogo, J.,Ayodo, T.M.O., &Othuon, L.A. (2010).The Impact of Cost Sharing Strategy on Access, Equity and Equality of Secondary Education in Kenya.Kenya J. Educational Planning, Economics Management.2(June, 2010).Journal of Educational Administration and Management.Vol 1(1): 001-006.


Gura, E.O (2015). The Effects of Kenya’s Subsidized Secondary Education Program on Access, retention, equity and quality: A study of Nyakach Sub- County, Kisumu, Kenya.Unpublished M.ED Research Project, Kenyatta University.


Israel, Glenn, D. (2009). Determining Sample size.Program Evaluation and Organizational Development, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611IFAS, University of Florida.PEOD-6. April, 2009.


Karagu, M.A., Oanda, O.I. & Sifuna, D.N. (Eds). (2006). Themes in the study of the Foundations of Education.Nairobi:Jomo Kenyatta Foundation.


Keriga, L. (2009).Social Policy, Development and Governance in Kenya; An Evaluation and Profile of Education in Kenya,Nairobi: DPME.


Kerlinder, F.N. (1986). Foundations of behaviorial research. Fort Worth, TX: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.


Kimitei, J.W. (2010). Determinants of Transition  Rate  to Secondary Education among Primary School Girls  in Kenya: A  Case of Keiyo District. Unpublished  M.Phil Thesis. Moi University.


Leedy, P.D. & Ormrod, J.E. (2005). Practical Research: Planning and design. New Jersey: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.


Lewin, K.M. (2008). Strategies for Sustainable Financing of Secondary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington D.C: World Bank.


Macharia, R. W. (2013). Impact of Free Secondary Education Policy on Internal Efficiency of Day Schools in Gatanga District, Murang’a County, Kenya.Unpublished  Masters Project. Kenyatta University.


Ministry of Education. (2012). Task force on the Re-Alignment of the Education Sector to the Constitution of Kenya 2010.Nairobi; Government printer.


Ministry of Education. (2009). Education Facts and Figures.EMIS; Ministry of Education, Kenya.


Ministry of Education. (2007). Report of the Task Force on Affordable Secondary Education. Nairobi: ShrendPub.LTD.


Ministry of Education. (2004).Education in Kenya: Challenges’ and Policy Responses. Paper Prepared for the presentation at the Council on Foreign Relations Washington D.C.


Monk, D.H. (1992). "Education Productivity Research: An Update and Assessment of its Rolein Education Finance Reform." Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, Winter, 14(4): 307-332.


Mugenda, O.M., & Mugenda, A.G.(2003). Research Methods: Quantitative and qualitative approaches, Nairobi: lab graphics services ltd publishers.


Munda, S.W. & Odebero, S. (2014). The Influence of Education Costs on Students’ Academic Performance  in Kenya: An Empirical study of Bungoma County Secondary Schools. Asian Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 2 (1):2014.


Munda, S.W., Tanui, E.K. &Kaberia, L. (2010).Relationship between Selected Education Facilities and students’ Academic Performance in Secondary Schools in Bungoma District, Kenya.EMSK Journal vol. 2 ISSN 2074- 5400 (pg. 97)


Mutula, K. (2013). Ministers speech during the release of 2012 KCSE results.


Ndolo, A.M., Simatwa, E.M.W. & Ayodo, T.M.O. (2011). Effects of School Based Investments on access and financing of Secondary education in Homa-bay District, Kenya. Journal of Education. Educ. Res 2012 Vol. 2(12): 1821-1830.


Ndolo, M.A. (2011). Effects of School Based Investments on Access  and Financing of Secondary Education in Homa Bay District, Kenya. Unpublished  M.ED Thesis, Maseno University.


Ngeno, C.V. &Simatwa E.M.W. (2015). Influence of Free Policy on Gender Parity Index Repetition, Dropout, Wastage and Students Academic  Achievement in Kericho County. Unpublished PhD Thesis, MAseno University.


Ngeno, C.V. & Simatwa E.M.W. (2015). Influence of Free Secondary Education Policy on Dropout Rates in Kenya: A case  Study of Kericho County. Greener Journal of Education Research. 2015 Vol. 5(4):152-175.


Ngeno, C.V., Simatwa, E.M.W. &Ayodo, T.M.O. (2014). Impact of Free  Secondary Education Policy on Gender  Equity in Secondary Schools Education in Kenya: A  Case study of Kericho County. Journal of Education Res. Vol. 5(3):83-97.


Ngware, M., Abuya, B., Admassu, K., & Oketch, M. (2009). Quality and Access to Education in Urban Informal Settlement in Kenya.


Njoroge, D. (2011). Public School Enrolment on the Decline in Central. Education News December 2011: 22.


Nyaegah, O.J. (2011). Education and Millennium Development Goal Challenges Facing Management of FPE in Nyamira County-Kenya.Proceedings of the International Conference for EMSK.Held at University of Nairobi: EMSK.


Ohba, A. (2009). Does Free Secondary Education enable the poor to gain access,Create.Republic of Kenya.(2012a).Task Force on the Re-Alignment of the Education Sector to the Constitution of Kenya 2010.Nairobi;Government  Printer.


Oketch, M. & Somerset, A. (2010). Free Primary Education and after in Kenya: Enrolment Impact, Quality Effects and the Transition to secondary School. Create Pathways to Access Research monograph No. 37. Retrieved February 22nd February, 2014 from


Osero, O.P., Nyakundi, M.R., Nyakundi, E. &Nyakundi, N.E. (2013). Factors influencing performance  of pupils on transition from lower primary  to upper primary in Ekerenyo Division, Nyamira County, Kenya. proceedings of the fourth conference of EMSK 25-27th September, 2013 at Kabarak University.


Oso,W.Y. &Onen, D. (2011). A general guide to writing research proposal and report: A handbook for beginning researchers, Nairobi: JKF publishers.


Psacharopoulous, G. &Woodhall, M. (1985).Education for Development. New York: World Bank. 


Republic of Kenya.(2015). Economic Survey 2015.Nairobi; Government printer.


Republic of Kenya.  (2013). The Basic Education Act 2013. Nairobi; Government Printer.


Republic of Kenya.(2012). Ministry of Education Sessional Paper No. 14 of 2012, A Policy Framework for Education Training.


Republic of Kenya.(2010). 2009 Kenya Population and Housing Census.Nairobi; Government printer.


Republic of Kenya.(2010a).2009 Kenya Population and Housing Census. Nairobi; Government printer.


Republic of Kenya.(2012 b).Economic Survey 2012.Nairobi; Government printer.


Republic of Kenya.(2009). Guidelines for Implementation of Free Secondary Education, Nairobi:  Ministry of Education.


Republic of Kenya.(2007). Report of the Task force on Affordable Secondary Education. Nairobi: Ministry of Education.


Republic of Kenya.(2006).Strategic Plan 2006-2012; Nairobi; Government Printer.


Republic of Kenya. (2005).Sessional Paper No.1 of 2005 on A Policy Framework for Education, Training and Research.Nairobi: Government Printer.


Republic of Kenya.(1999).Totally Integrated Quality Education and Training.Report of the Commission of Inquiry into the Education System of Kenya.Nairobi: Government Printer.


Rono, K., Onderi, H. & Awino, J. (2013).Perceptions of Causes of Poor Academic   Performance amongst Selected Secondary Schools in Kericho Sub County. Implications for School Management. Proceedings of the Fourth Conference of EMSK 25th -27th September 2013 at Kabarak University.


Saitoti, G. (2004). Education in Kenya: Challenges and Policy responses. Paper prepared for presentation at the Council on Foreign Relations. Washington DC.


Sifuna, D.N. (1990).Development of Education in Africa; the Kenyan experience, Nairobi: Initiative.


Sifuna, D.N. &Oanda, O.I. (2014). Historical and Contemporary Trends  in the Development of Education in Kenya. Nairobi. Jomo Kenyatta Foundation.


Simon & Goes (2013): research.pdf(accessed on 11th Jan 2015).


Todaro, P.M. (1994). Economics of a Developing World. London: Longman publication.


UNESCO. (2011).Global Education Digest 2011: Comparing Education Statistics Across the World. Montreal, Canada; UNESCO.Retrieved on 22nd February 2014 from http/


UNESCO. (2008). Regional Overview: Sub Saharan Africa. UNESCO.


UNESCO.(1990). Report of the World Conference on Education for All.Jomtiem, Thailand; UNESCO.


UNICEF. (2011). UNICEF: Gender Equality in Secondary Education. Retrieved on 22nd February 2014 from


Veriava,F. (2002).Eradicating Barriers to Education: An introduction to the Education Rights Project; SA e-publication, Vol. 3(2):13-15.


Verspoor, A. (2008).At the Crossroads; Choices for Secondary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa; Washington ,D.C: World Bank


Wango, G. (2009).School Administration and Management: Quality Assurance and Standards in Schools. Nairobi; Jomo Kenyatta Foundation.


Wanja, H.W. (2014). An understanding of the Trends in the Free Secondary Education funding policy and transition rates from primary to secondary education in Kenya. Journal of Education and Social Research.Vol. 4 No. (1): 133-142.


Yamane, T. (1967).Statistics, An Introductory Analysis, New York: Harper and Row.

Call for Papers/Books

Call for Scholarly Articles

Authors from around the world are invited to send scholary articles that suits the scope of this journal. The journal is currently open to submissions and will process and publish articles in a timely fashion.

The journal is centered on quality and goes about its processes in a very timely fashion. Seasoned editors/reviewers will be consulted to review each article(s), profer quality evaluations and polish the articles with expertise before publication.

Simply send your article(s) as an e-mail attachment to or

Call for Books

You are also invited to submit your books for online or print publication. We publish books related to all academic subject areas.    Submit as an e-mail attachment to


Login Form

Other Journals