Akoth et al
Greener Journal of Educational Research Vol. 6(5), pp. 177-193, August 2016
ISSN: 2276-7789 © 2015 Greener Journals
Manuscript Number: 071816119
Influence of Constituency Development Fund on Access to Secondary Educationin Public Secondary Schools in Kisumu County, Kenya
Olendo Caren Akoth*1, Olel MA2 and Agak JO3
1,2Department of Educational Management and Foundations, Maseno University.
3Department of Psychology, Maseno University.
Access to secondary education in public schools in Kenya has not been fully achieved due to rising costs in education. In 2003, the government of Kenya adopted a devolved system of funding of education through the Constituency Development Fund in order to promote access to secondary education. In Kisumu County, the scenario is not so different from the national one. Although public secondary schools in the county receive money from Constituency Development Fund, statistics show that the Gross Enrolment Rate was at 35% lower than the national one which was 48.8% in the year 2012. The influence of Constituency Development Fund on access to secondary education was not known and this therefore warranted an investigation. The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of Constituency Development Fund on access to secondary education in public schools in Kisumu County. Descriptive survey and correlational research designs were adopted. The study population comprised of 220 public secondary school principals, 13,813 form four students, 7 Constituency Development Funds Managers and 7 Sub-County Quality Assurance and Standards Officers. Simple random sampling was used to select 140 secondary school principals and 1,400 students while saturated sampling was used to sample 6 Quality Assurance and Standards Officers and 6 Constituency Development Funds Managers. It was found that Constituency Development Fund was a significant predictor of access to secondary education in Kisumu County. This was because there was an increase in the number of new schools that were purely started using Constituency Development Funds and several classrooms were also constructed in the already existing schools within the county. The study recommended that the amount of money disbursed to secondary schools through Constituency Development Fund should be increased so as to have a higher impact on access. This study is important because it may provide useful information to education planners on how Constituency Development Fund influences access to secondary education and what needs to be done in order to effectively use it to improve enrolment in secondary schools in Kenya.
Key Words: Influence, Constituency Development Fund, Access, Secondary Education, Public Secondary Schools, Kisumu County, Kenya.
Andrew, P. (2000). Promoting Good Local Governance through Social Funds and Decentralization.
Aseta, J.A. (2011). Challenges Impacting on Female Students Enrolment and Completion Rates in Public Secondary Schools in Nyamusi Division in Ekerenyo District, Kenya. Unpublished Research Project. Kenyatta University.
Ayiga, N. (1991). Causes of Low Enrolment and High Dropout Rates in Primary Education in Uganda. Abridged Research Report.
Ayot, H.O. &Briggs, H. (1992). Economics of Education: Educational Research and Publications First Edition Nairobi, Kenya.
Bagaka, O. (2008). Fiscal Decentralization in Kenya and the Growth of Government: The Constituency Development Fund. Northern Illinois University: De-Kalb Illinois.
Center for International Development, Constituency Development Funds Workshops, (2009) .Available at www.cid.suny.edu/publications 1/CDF%20Albany%20Report.pdf..
Chweya, L. (2006). Constituency Development Fund: A Critique: Nairobi.
Evangelical Fellowship of Zambia and Micah Challenge (2012). Constituency Development Fund in Zambia: Transparency in Grassroots Development or Political Patronage? Tearfund. Zambia.
Evusa, Z. (2008). Constituency Characteristics that Impact on Efficiency and Efficacy of CDF, Kenyatta University.
Ezewu, E. (1990).Sociology of Education. Longhorn, Nigeria.
Gikonyo, W. (2008):The CDF Social Audit Guide. Open Society Initiative for East Africa, Nairobi, Kenya. Availableatwww.soros.org/initiatives/osiea/articles-publications/cdf-20080201/resource-20080808.pdf.s
Government of Kenya. (1996). Kisumu County Development Plan.Government Printer. Nairobi.
Government of Kenya. (2004). The Kenya Gazette Supplements No. 107. (Act No. 11) 9th January 2007 Government printer.
Government of Kenya, CDF Act (2003).Government Printer.www.cdf.go.ke.
Government of Kenya; Economic Survey Report (2005); Government Printer.www.cdf.go.ke. http//:www.education. Statutory university.com/pages/1903/decentralized.ed.html. Http:www.bing.com.
IPAR (2008). Public Expenditure Tracking of Secondary Education Bursary Scheme in Kenya. Nairobi.
Institute of Economic Affairs (2006).Kenyans Verdict. A citizen report on the CDF: IEA Research Paper No. 7. Kenya national Commission of Human Rights published by Institution of Nairobi Kenya.
Jagero, N.O. (2011). Cost Effectiveness Analysis Between Day and Boarding Students in Kisumu District. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Maseno University, Kenya..
KIPPRA (2006).The Democratic Government SupportProgramme.http//:www.kippra.org./DGSP.booklet.data
KIPPRA, (2008). The Democratic Governance Support Programme; Constituency Development Fund: Nairobi.
Krejcie, R.V. &Morgan,D.W. (1970). Determining Sample Size for Research Activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement ,Vol. (30):607-610.
Malawi Millennium Development Goals ( 2012). National Consultations on Post MDGs.
Ministry of Education (2008): About the Ministry. Retrieved June 9th 2009 from http://www.education.go.ke/resources.htm.
Maeke, E. (2009). School Shake up: Case Study of Moi Girls Marsabit. www.changemakers .com. Retrieved on 17.12.2009.
Ministry of Education (2007): Report of the Task Force on Affordable Secondary Education. Shrend Publishers Ltd.
Mugenda, M.O. &Mugenda, G.A. (2003). Research Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches. Nairobi: Acts Press.
Murage, M. P. (2008).Contribution of CDF to Secondary Education in Laikipia West District. Kenya. Unpublished Masters Thesis.Maseno University.
Mutinda, M.N. (2015). Contribution of Constituency Development Fund Bursary on the provision of Secondary Education of Ogiek Girls in Njoro Sub-County, Kenya.International Journal of Humanities and Education Vol. 2, Issue 2: 77-85. ISSN 2349-03739(Print) &ISSN 2349-0381.
Mwangi, S. (2005). Efficiency and Efficacy of Kenya’s Constituency Development Fund; Government Printer. Nairobi.
Ng’alu, M.M. & Bomett, J.E. (2014). The Role of Constituency Development Fund In Provision of Secondary School Education In Kenya. International Journal of Scientificand Technology Research Volume 3. Retrieved 8th August 2014.
Nyakeri, B. (2011). Analysis of the Effects of Subsidized Secondary School Education on Access and Participation: A case study of Manga District, Nyamira County. Unpublished Research Project, Kenyatta University.
Ochieng, F.O. & Tubey, R. (2013). Factors Influencing Management of CDF Projects. A Case Study of Ainamoi Constituency, Kericho County. International Journal of Science and Technology Volume 2 No. 1. January, 2013.
Ohba, A. (2009). Does Free Secondary Education Enable the Poor to Gain Access? A study from Rural Kenya.Create Pathways to Access Monograph No 21.Brighton: University of Sussex.
Okumbe, J.A. (1999). Educational Management: Theory and Practice. Nairobi: University Press..
Omondi, T.B. (2007). Constraints of the CDF Bursary Allocation to Secondary School Students in SiayaDistrict.Unpublished Research Proposal, Kenyatta University.
Opiyo, P. (2009).CDF Mess Shocker” The Standard 17th March, 2009.
Otieno, P. (2009). An Evaluation of CDF on Poverty Reduction in Gem Constituency, Siaya District; Kenya. Unpublished Master of Arts in Economics. Maseno University.
Otieno, K.O. (2007): Impact of CDF on Access and Equity in Financing SecondaryEducation in Nyando District, Kenya. Unpublished Research Project, MasenoUniversity.
Oyaro, K.K. (2013). Free Secondary School Policy faces testing times. Inter Press Services News Agency. Retrieved March 6th2013 from http://www.ipsnews.net/2008/03/kenya-freesecondary-schooling-policy-faces-testing-times/
Oyugi, L. (2010). Public Expenditure Trucking of Secondary Education Bursary Scheme in Kenya. Nairobi Institute of Policy Analysis and Research. IPAR
Psacharopoulos, G.&Woodhall, M. (1985).Education for Development: An Analysis of Investment Choices. New York: IBRD/World Bank.
Republic of Kenya, (1980).The Education Act Chapter 211.
Republic of Kenya.(1987). A Manual for Heads of Secondary Schools in Kenya. Nairobi.
Republic of Kenya, (2002c). Report on Student Discipline in Central Province. Ministry of Education. Nairobi; Government Printer.
Republic of Kenya, (2006).A handbook for Secondary Schools.
Republic of Kenya (2007a).Gender and Education Policy in Kenya. Government Printer. Nairobi.
Selowsky, M. (1979): Who Benefits From Government Expenditure? A Case Study of Colombia, New York. Oxford University Press.
Wachiye, H. & Nasongo, J.(2010). Access to Secondary Education through the Constituency Development Bursary Fund in Kandui Constituency, Kenya.
Wambua, M. E: (2011) Impact of Infrastructure on Access and Provision of Quality Secondary Education in Kisumu Municipality. Unpublished Thesis, Maseno University.
Wanja, P. M. (2012). Factors Affecting Quality of Education in Public Day Secondary Schools in Thika- Ruiru Division , Thika District, http//erespository.vonbi.ac.ke.
World Bank (2003). Investing in School Infrastructure: Economic Review, Vol.16.297-319. Washington D.C. World Bank.
World Bank (2005).Challenges Facing Bursary in the Sub –Saharan Africa. Nairobi: World Bank. Retrieved on 23rd July 2010 from http://www.worldbank.ord/ke.
World Bank (2007).Recruiting and Retaining Secondary School Teachers and Principals in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Bank Working Paper No 99: African Development Series. Washington D.C: World Bank.
World Bank (2008). Education in Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington D. C. World Bank.
World Bank (2012).Wastage in African Educational System. Washington D.C, World Bank.