Lugonzo et al
Greener Journal of Educational Research Vol. 7(4), pp. 049-060, June 2017
Manuscript Number: 061817077
Factors Contributing to the High Drop out of Girls in the Secondary Schools around Lake Victoria: A Case Study of Nyangoma Division in Siaya County, Kenya
*1Humphrey Musera Lugonzo, 2Fatuma Chege, & 3Violet Wawire
Department of Educational Foundations, School of Education, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.
This descriptive survey research study established the contribution of fishing around Lake Victoria on the high drop out of girls in the secondary schools of Nyangoma Division in Siaya County in Kenya. The participants involved in this study included Beach Management Units (BMUs) Officers; principals; teachers; plus form 3 and form 4 students drawn from 4 secondary schools in the Division. A total of 159 students that is, 108 boys and 51 girls as well as 16 teachers that is, 10 males 6 and females participated in the study. Questionnaires, interview guide, and non-participant observations were the research instruments used to collect data. A documentary analysis of the records in the secondary schools selected for the study was used to supplement the data collected on the rate of drop out of girls. Descriptive survey research design was employed in the study. Data was analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The results of this study showed that fishing contributed to the high drop out of girls who were involved in this activity. It was concluded that there was a significant relationship between fishing and drop out of girls in secondary schools in Nyangoma Division. This study recommends that the Government of Kenya through the Ministry of Education should organize workshops / insets for teachers teaching in lake regions to equip them with skills on guiding. This would enable them to counsel and advise the girls in their schools effectively. Further, the government and parents should provide for the basic needs of the girls in fishing regions like sanitary towels, better sanitation and clean water to enable them not to continue dropping out of secondary schools.
Key Words: fishing, school dropout, and child labour.
Akinola, A. A. and Akinyemi, A. A. (2006). Evaluation of traditional and solar drying system towards enhancing fish storage and preservation in Nigeria (Abeokuta local government as a case study). Journal of Fisheries International, 1 (2-4), 44-49.
Anyango, E. and Menn, I. (2010). Omena fishery and “sex for fish” at Lake Victoria. Hamburg.
Bene, C. and Merten, S. (2008). Women and fish-for-sex: Transactional sex, HIV/AIDS and gender in African fisheries. World Development, 36(5), 875–899.
Bureau of International Labour Affairs (2003). The department of labour’s 2002 findings on the worst forms of child
labor. U.S. Department of Labour.
Byrnes, D.A. (2001). War and conflict: Educators advocating for the protection of children. The Educational Forum 65, no.3 (spring), 227-231.
Christophe, B. and Sonja, M. (2007). Women and fish-for-sex: Transactional sex, HIV/AIDS and gender in African fisheries. 36 (5), 875–899.
Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (2006). Consideration of reports submitted by states parties under article 18 of the CEDAW: Combined fifth and sixth periodic reports of states parties: Kenya. United Nations.
FAO (2005). Impact of HIV/AIDS on fishing communities: Policies to support livelihoods, rural development and public health. Rome: FAO.
FAO (2004). The state of world fisheries and aquaculture (SOFIA), 2004. Part 1: World review of fisheries and aquaculture, Fishers and fish farmers. Rome: FAO.
FAO, World Bank and IFAD (2009). Gender in fisheries and aquaculture: Overview. In gender and agriculture sourcebook. Rome: FAO.
FAO ,WorldFish Center and World Bank (2008). Small-scale capture fisheries – A global overview with emphasis on developing countries: a preliminary report of the Big Numbers Project. FAO and WorldFish Center, Rome & Penang.
Fay, W. (2008). The right to learn: Batwa education in the great lakes region of Africa. Minority Rights Group International.
Gordon, A. (2005). HIV/AIDS in the fisheries sector in Africa. WorldFish Center, Cairo, Egypt.
Horrill, J., Kalombo, H. and Makoloweka, S. (2001). Collaborative reef and reef fisheries management in Tanga, Tanzania. IUCN East Africa Programme.
ILO (2004). Child labour statistics – Manual on methodologies for data collection through surveys, statistical information and monitoring programme on child labour (SIMPOC).Geneva, Switzerland.
ILO (2002). El Salvador – Child labour in fishing: A rapid assessment.
ILO Convention No. 182 (1999). Worst forms of child labour. Retrieved February 15, 2009 from http://ilolex.ilo.ch:1567/english/convdisp2.htm
Jaboya Project (2008). Report of Policy Consultative Forum on Health and Livelihoods of Fishing Communities of Lake Victoria from 9th to 11th April 2008. Environment Liaison Centre International, Nairobi.
Kothari, C.R. (2004). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. New Delhi: New Age International Publishers.
Kronen, M. and Vunisea, A. (2009). Fishing impact and food security – Gender differences in finfisheries across Pacific Island countries and cultural groups. Women in Fisheries Information Bulletin Issue 19, 3–11.
Legal Notice No. 18 (2001). The fisheries (General Amendment) Regulations 2001. Kenya Gazette Supplement No. 4 of 26th January, 2001.
Llewellyn, E. (2006). Beach communities and matatu crew endline survey - Sexual patterning among beach communities and matatu crew in Bondo and Suba districts. Merlin.
Loevinsohn, M. and Gillespie, S. (2003). HIV/AIDS, food security and rural livelihoods: understanding and responding, FCND Discussion Paper No 157, IFPRI: Washington.
Lwenya, C. A. and Abila, R. (2001). Gender participation in fisheries management of Lake Victoria, Kenya. Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute. Action AID-Kenya.
Maddox, B. (2006). Literacy in fishing communities. Rome, FAO, SFLP, mimeo.
Manyala, J. O. and Gitonga, N. K. (2008). A study on marketing channels of omena and consumer preferences in Kenya. GTZ PSDA / Republic of Kenya.
Ministry of Education (2008). Education Management Information System (EMIS) Report. Republic of Kenya.
Ministry of Education (2007). Education sector review. Republic of Kenya. October, 2007.
Muganda, R. O. and Omondi, M. (2008). Down the drain: counting the costs of teenage pregnancy and school dropout. The Centre for the Study of Adolescence (CSA).
Murphy, E. and Carr, D. (2007). Powerful partners: Adolescent girls’ education and delayed child bearing. Population Reference Bureau.
Musumali, M., and Wishart, C. (2009). Fisheries in Zambia: an undervalued contributor to poverty reduction. The WorldFish Center / The World Bank. Policy Brief 1913.
Nite, T. and Clare, B. S. (2003). The dynamics of Hiv/Aids in small-scale fishing communities in Uganda. HIV/AIDS Programme, FAO, Rome.
Njoroge, J. (2005).An investigation into the causes of dropout among primary schools girls in Githunguri division in Kiambu. Unpublished MED.Thesis,Kenyatta University, Kenya.
Orodho (2003). Essentials of Educational and Social Sciences Research Methods. Nairobi: Masola Publishers.
Oronje, R. N. (2007). Factors affecting transition to secondary education in Africa. APHRC Policy Brief. Ford Foundation.
Otieno, S. (2010). MP accuses fishermen of luring school girls into sex.
Paris, T. and Chi, T. (2005). The impact of row seeder technology on women labour: A case study in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Gender, Technology and Development 9 (2).
Reject (2009). Poverty driving children from school to fishing in lake region. Media Diversity Centre. Issue 007.
Republic of Kenya (2012): Education Sector Report 2013/14-2015/16. Medium Term Expenditure Framework.
Republic of Kenya (2008). Millennium development goals status report for Kenya–2007. Ministry of State for Planning, National Development and Vision 2030.
Rono, K.J. (1990). Factors influencing the rate of dropout among the secondary school students in Nandi District of Kenya. Unpublished MED. Thesis, Kenyatta University, Kenya
SDF and FSF (2009). A study on the impact of processing industries on fishing communities in Thailand: The changing role of women in fishing communities. Manila: Asia Pacific Research Network.
Sifuna, D. N., Fatuma, N. C., and Oanda, I. O. (2006). Themes in the study of the foundations of education. Jomo Kenyatta Foundation.
Tembon, M., and Fort, L. (2008). Girls’ education in the 21st century: Gender equality, empowerment, and economic growth. Washington, DC: World Bank.
United Nations (1948). General assembly resolution 217A of 10th December 1948: 76-77.
U.S. Embassy (2002). Unclassified telegram no. 1394. Sao Paulo. October 2002.
Vegard, I. (2006). Children’s work in fisheries: A cause for alarm? School of development studies, University of East Anglia, Norwich, U.K.
Vimala, R. (2010). Gender issues in higher education. UNESCO Asia and Pacific regional bureau for education.
Weeratunge, N. and Snyder, K.A. (2009). Gleaner, fisher, trader, processor: Understanding gendered employment in the fisheries and aquaculture sector. Paper presented at FAO-IFAD-ILO workshop on ‘Gaps, trends and current research in gender dimensions of agricultural and rural employment: differentiated pathways out of poverty’. Rome: FAO.
Whitehead, A. and Hashim, I. (2005). Child migration, child agency and intergenerational relations in Africa and South Asia. Paper presented at the conference on “Childhoods 2005”. Oslo, Norway.
WISER (2008). About wiser. Retrieved September 1, 2008, from http://wisergirls.org/about/.
World Bank (2000). Discussion Paper No. 411 Page 10.
Call for Papers/Books
Call for Scholarly Articles
Authors from around the world are invited to send scholary articles that suits the scope of this journal. The journal is currently open to submissions and will process and publish articles in a timely fashion.
The journal is centered on quality and goes about its processes in a very timely fashion. Seasoned editors/reviewers will be consulted to review each article(s), profer quality evaluations and polish the articles with expertise before publication.
Simply send your article(s) as an e-mail attachment to firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com.
Call for Books
You are also invited to submit your books for online or print publication. We publish books related to all academic subject areas. Submit as an e-mail attachment to firstname.lastname@example.org.