Baraza and Simatwa
Greener Journal of Educational Research Vol. 6(3), pp. 091-114, May 2016
Manuscript Number: 051616087
Influence of Employment Factors on Stress among Public Secondary School Teachers in Kenya. A Case Study of Kakamega North Sub-county
Olive Taabu Baraza and Enose M.W. Simatwa
Department of Educational Management and Foundations, Maseno University.
Stress is a complex concept that for many years has not been taken seriously and hence lacks adequate definition. To some scholars stress is any external stimulus that causes wear and tear on one’s psychological or physical well-being. Other scholars define it as tension, pressure, anxiety or worry resulting from one’s life events. These definitions imply that stress is a condition arising from the interaction of people and their jobs, characterized by changes within people that force them to deviate from normal functioning. Under normal conditions, our bodies and minds are in a state of equilibrium. As a result of occurrences on and off the job however, our equilibrium may be disrupted. In attempting to recover from this imbalance, we function differently and sometimes generate a fight-or-flight chemical reaction. A person under severe or prolonged stress cannot function as effectively as a person leading a more balanced life. This does not imply that stress is all negative, some amount of stress is necessary to accomplish anything meaningful because certain amount of stress adds zest to life. The link between perceived work-related stress and impaired functioning on the job is well-documented, demonstrating the classic inverted U-shaped relationship between stress and performance. That is, employees who experience a moderate degree of job stress perform their jobs most efficiently, while those who experience either low or high work-related stress show reduced work efficiency. Students in Kakamega North Sub county’s performance was below average from 2009 to 2013. The mean scores of Kenya Certificate of Secondary examinations remained below 4.3 compared to neighbouring sub counties that had recorded higher mean scores of 5.1 and above for the same period. That is, Mumias Sub –county had 5.80, Kakamega Sub-county had 5.40, Kakamega East Sub County had 5.20 and Matete Sub-county had 4.90. Stress related cases were also on the increase in the sub county with cases of transfer requests rising from 14 in 2009 to 400 in 2013. The purpose of this study was therefore to establish employment factors that influence stress among secondary school teachers in public secondary schools in Kakamega North Sub-county. The study adopted descriptive survey and correlational research designs. The study population consisted of 45 principals, 133 teachers and one Teachers Service Commission County Director. Quantitative data was collected using questionnaires and document analysis guide while qualitative data was collected using interview schedules. Data was collected by use of questionnaires, interview schedules, and document analysis guide. The study established that employment factors accounted for 11.8% of the variation in teachers’ stress. This means that 88.2% of the variation was due to other factors that were not subject of this study. Since the employment factor that had the highest impact on teachers’ stress was government decisions on teachers strike, this study recommended that industrial disputes involving national strike should be dealt with strictly in accordance with the legislation that govern labour relations. The wage bill for teachers should also be regularly reviewed and collective bargaining agreements adhered to by both the teachers’ trade union and the government.
Key Words: Influence, Employment Factors, Stress, Public Secondary School, Teachers, Kakamega North Sub-county, Kenya.
Abirami, V. (2012). Levels of stress among college teachers with reference to Coimbatore district, Research world -Journal of Arts, Science & Commerce Vol. III, Issue4(2): 93-104.
Adeniyi, S. O,.Fakolade, O., Aremum, F. O. &Adeyinka, T. (2010). Perceived Causes of Job Stress Among Special Educators in Selected Special and Integrated Schools in Nigeria.New Horizons in Education, Vol.58 (2): 72-82.
Aftab, M. &Khatoon, T. (nd). Demographic differences and occupational stress of secondary school teachers European Scientific Journal March edition Vol. 8(5): 159-179.
Aikman, S. &Unterhalter, E. (2005). Beyond access: Transforming policy and practicefor gender equality in education. London: Oxford.
Alam, M. T.&Farid, S. (2011). Factors Affecting Teachers Motivation.International Journal of Business and Social Science Vol. 2 (1): 298 -304.
Alemu Y., Teshome, A., Kebede, M. &Regassa, T. (2014). Experience of stress among student-teachers enrolled in postgraduate diploma in teaching: The case of Haramaya University cluster centers, Ethiopia. African Educational Research Journal Vol. 2(3): 96-10.
Anbu, A. (2015). Professional Stress of Higher Secondary School teachers.International Journal of Multidisciplinary research and Development.2(1):1-3.
Antoniou, A., Ploumpi, A. &Ntalla, M. (2013), Occupational stress and professional burnout in teachers of primary and secondary education: The role of coping strategies psychology 2013. Vol.4, No.3A: 349-355.
Antoniou, Polychroni, and Vlachakis, (2006). Gender and Age differences in Occupational Stress and Professional burnout between Primary and Secondary School teachers in Greece. Journal of Managerial Psychology 21(7): 682 -690
Anwar, K., Ishak, M. S., Sadaf, K,Shafiq, G. (2012). Teachers’ Stress, Performance & Resources: The Moderating Effects of Resources on Stress & Performance.International Review of Social Sciences and Humanities Vol. 2 (2): 21-29 www.irssh.com.
Areekkuzhiyil (2014). Factors Influencing the Original Stress among teachers working in Higher Education sector in Keraha; An Empirical analysis. Journal Research and Pedagogic Interventions 2(2):1-15.
Arul, A. A. (2011). Study on causes and coping strategies for stress among college teachers with special reference to Coimbatore region. Indian Streams Research Journal Vol. - I, issue.
Ayoti, C. & Poipoi, M.W. (201l). Factors contributing to stress among public secondary school teachers in Vihiga district, Kenya. International Journal of Current Research Vol. 33, (4):190-193.
Barbara, B. (2011). Teachers Remuneration and performance of schools under Uganda Primary Education system in Uganda.A case study of Wakiso District. A research Report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement of Bachelor of Commerce of Makerere University.
Beckley, J. (2011). The wellbeing of New Zealand teachers: The relationship between health, stress, job demands and teachers efficacy Thesis Masey University, Albany.
Bibi, S., Yasmin, B., Fozia, B. & Mola, D. S. (2012). The Nature and Impact of Teacher Stress in the Private Schools of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development Vol. 1, (20: 64-84.
Boyland, L. (2011). Job stress and coping strategies of elementary principals: A statewide study. Current Issues in Education, 14 (3):1-11 Retrieved from http://cie.asu.edu/ojs/index.php/cieatasu/article/view/806.
Bratton, J. & Gold, J. (1999).Human resource management, theory and practice, second edition, Polgrave New York.
Chris Kyriacou, C. &Chien, P. (2004). Teacher stress in Taiwanese primary schools.
Commer, P. J., Hanif, R., Tariq, S. &Nadeem, M. (2011). Personal and Job Related Predictors of Teacher Stress and Job Performance among School Teachers Soc. Vol. 5 (2): 319-329.
Curtaz, D. M. (1997). Perceived causes of stress and burnout as reported by elementary teachers at an urban school thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of masters of arts in education (educational leadership) at California state university, sacramento fall.
Darmody, M. &Emer Smyth, S. (2001). Job Satisfaction and Occupational Stress among Primary School Teachers and School Principals in Ireland .A Report Compiled by the ESRI on Behalf of The Teaching Council. The Economic and Social Research Institute Whitaker Square Sir John Rogerson’s Quay Dublin 2.
Decenzo, D. A. & Robbins, S. P. (2006).Personnel Human Resource Management.New Delhi. Prentice Hall
Dessler, G. (2008). Human resource management, 11th edition New Delhi India.
Dunyilemi, B.O. (1992). Source and Social Correlates of occupational stress among Nigerian primary school teachers. www.researchgate.net.
Eres, F. &Atanasoska, T. (2011). Occupational Stress of Teachers: A Comparative Study Between Turkey and Macedonia International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. 1 No. 7: 59-65. Journal of Educational Research and Essays Vol. 1(1): 1- 4 Jan. 2013.
Fisher, M.H. (2011). Factors Influencing Stress, Burnout, and Retention of Secondary Teachers.Current Issues in Education, 14(1). Retrieved from http://cie.asu.edu/
Fraenkel, J. R. &Wallen, E.N. (2009). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education, New York: McGraw-Hill Companies.
Gebrekirstos, H.A. (2015). Occupational Stress among Secondary School Teachers and their Strategies. The case of Central zone of Tigray Region, Ethiopia.International Journal of Academic Research In Education and Reviews 3(6):143-157
Govindarajan, K. A. (2012). Study on the Level of Stress And Coping Strategies among Primary Teachers In Tamilnadu. International Multidisciplinary: 19-25.
Haastrup, T., Ekundayo, H.T. &Kolawole, A. O. (2013). Stress among Secondary School Teachers in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Journal of Educational and Social Research Vol. 3 (2) pp 311 Doi:10.5901/jesr.2013.v3n2p311 -315
Hadi, A. A., Naing, N. N., Daud, A., Nordin, R. &Sulong, M.R. (2009). Prevalence and factors associated with stress among secondary school teachers in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia Vol. 40 (6):1359-1370.
Hasty, R.E. (2007). Teacher attrition: the relationship between teachers’ stress and their intentions to leave their current positions. A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Educational Leadership. University of Phoenix.
Holeyannavar, P.G. & ITAGI, S.K. (2010). Stress and health status of primary school teachers Karnataka J. Agric. Sci., 23 (4) : 620-624.
Howard, S., & Johnson, B. (2004). Resilient teachers: resisting stress and burnout. Social Psychology of Education , 7: 399-420.
Igharo, K. O. (2013, March). Stress: effects on school leadership and its management. International Researcher Vol. 2 (1): 104-115
Inyanji, J. &Cherotich, J. (2014). Standard Newspaper Friday, June 2014.
Jaiyebo, A. O. &Jibril, M.A. (2008). Sources of Occupational Stress among Secondary School Administrators in Kano State, An International Multidisciplinary Journal, Ethiopia Vol. 2 (3): 116-129.
Karihe, Namusonge and Iravo (2015). Work facilities as a determinant of occupational stress and employee performance. International Journal of Science and Research4(5)1925-1930.
Kayastha, D.P. &Kayastha, R. (2012). A study of occupational stress on job satisfaction among teachers with particular reference to corporate, higher secondary school of Nepal: Empirical study, NEPAL.
Kazi, S.S., Shah, I. M., & Khan, A.(2013) . Occupational Stress, Performance and Emotional Intelligence: A Critical Review International Review of Social Sciences and Humanities Vol. 5, No. 1: 185-191 www.irssh.com,
Kendi, R.S. (2012). Impact of occupational stress on head teachers’ tasks in secondary schools of Kisumu county, Kenya. A research project submitted for the degree of master of education in the school of educational management, policy and curriculum studies of Kenyatta University, Kenya.
Kerr, R.A., Breen, J., Delaney, M., Kelly, C. &Miller, K(2011). "A Qualitative Study of Workplace Stress and Coping in Secondary Teachers in Ireland," Irish Journal of Applied Social Studies: Vol. 11: Issue. 1, Article 3. Available at: http://arrow.dit.ie/ijass/vol11/iss1/3 pg 1-38.
Khan, A., Shah, I.M., Khan, S., &Gul, S. (2012). Teachers’ Stress, Performance & Resources. The Moderating Effects of Resources on Stress and Performance: Review of Social Sciences and Humanities Vol. 2, (2): 21-29.
Kithokoo, M. A. (2008). School factors affecting performance in Kenya certificate of primary education in public primary schools in Yatta Division lower Yatta District, Kitui County. A Research Project, Kenyatta University.
Klassen, R., M., Usher, E.L. & Bong, M. (2010). 'Teachers' Collective Efficacy, Job Satisfaction, and Job Stress in Cross-Cultural Context', The Journal of Experimental Education, 78: (4): 464- 486.
Klassen, R.M. & Chiu, M.M. (2010). Effects on Teachers’ Self-Efficacy and Job Satisfaction: Teacher Gender, Years of Experience, and Job Stress. Journal of Educational Psychology American Psychological Association Vol. 102, No. 3: 741–756.
Koech , S. J., Tikoko, B. J., Bernard, Chemwei, B. (2014). Institutional factors that influence teacher turnover in public secondary schools in Baringo District.
Kumar and Deo (2011). Stress and Worklifeof college teachers. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology.37 Special Issue 78-85
Kwaku, N.E. (2012). Occupational stress and its effects on job performance: A case of Koforidua Polytechnic. Unpublished Masters of Business Administration.Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology.
Kyriacou, C. &Chien, P. (2004) Teacher stress in Taiwanese primary schools. Journal of Educational Enquiry, Vol. 5 (2): 86-104.
Manjula, C. (2007). A Study on Personality Factors Causing Stress among School Teachers M.Phil. Dissertation, submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the M. Phil degree in Psychology to Mother Teresa Women’s University, Kodaikanal.
Maphalala, M.C. (2014). The Manifestation of Occupational Stress in the Teaching Profession: The Unheeded Voices of Teachers Mediterranean. Journal of Social Sciences MCSER Publishing, Rome-Italy Vol. 5 (10): 77-88.
Mondal, J., Shrestha, S. &Bhaila, A. (2011). School Teachers: Job Stress and Job Satisfaction, Kaski, Nepal. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Health, Vol. 1: 1-7 http://nepjol.info/index.php/IJOSH.
Musyoka, M., Ogutu, M., &Awino, Z. B. (2012). Employee Stress and Performance of Companies Listed in the Nairobi Securities Exchange. DBA Africa Management Review 2012, Vol. 3 (1):115-129.
Naidoo, K. Botha, C. J. &Bisschoff, C. A.(2013). Causes of Stress in Public Schools and its Impact on Work Performance of EducatorsJournal of Science, 34(2): 177-190.
Ncube, A. C. &Tshabalala, T. (2013). Impact on Performance of Teachers InNkayi District, Nova. Journal of Medical and Biological Sciences Vol. 1(1) :15-23.
Ngari, S.M., Ndungu, A., Mwonya, R., Ngumi, O., Mumiukha, C., Chepchieng, M. &Kariuki, M. (2013).Levels of stress among secondary school administrators and its implication in education management in Kenya.Academic Journals.
Ngeno, G. (2007). Causes of Burnout among Primary school teachers within Kericho Municipality, Kenya.Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria 12(2): 9-18.
Okeke, C.I.O. &Dlamin, C. C. (2013). An empirical study of stressors that impinge on teachers in secondary schools in Swaziland South African Journal of Education; 33(1): 1-12.
OlaitanO.L., Oyerinde, Obiyemi, O. &Kayode, O.O. (2010).Prevalence of Job Stress among Primary School Teachers in South-west, Nigeria.African Journal of Microbiology Research March 4 2010 Vol. 4 (5): 1-9.
Olayiwola, S. (2008). Dimensions of Job Stress among Public Secondary school principals.Thesis, ObafemiAwolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
Olivier, M.A.J. (2003). The extent and causes of stress in teachers in the George region South African Journal of Education EASA Vol. 23(3): 186 – 192
Oriwa, A. T. (2010). Beneficiary’s involvement in constituency development fund financed projects, a case of Nyando constituency, Kenya. Unpublished Master Thesis, University of Nairobi.
Oso, Y.W. &Onen, D. (2005). Writing Research Proposal Report. Kisumu: Options printers and publishers.
Ozturk, G. (2011). Public Primary School Teachers’ Perceptions of their Working Conditions and Job Stress Cases from Istanbul and Stockholm.Institute of International Education Report 121 Institute of International Education Stockholm, Sweden.
Peltzer, K., Shisana, O., Zuma, K., Wyk, B.V. &Zungu-Dirwayi, N. (2008). Job stress, job satisfaction and stress-related illnesses among South African educators, Stress and Health Wiley Inter Science.
Professional Dialogue. (2012). Stress in the Workplace: Causes, Effects & How to Cope Vol. 8, No. 1, www.acep-cape.ca.
Putter, L. (2003). Stress factors among teachers in schools of industry thesis, university of Zululand.
Reddy, G. L. &Anuradha, R. V. (2013). Occupational Stress of Higher Secondary Teachers Working in Vellore District.International Journal of Educational Planning & Administration. ISSN 2249-3093 Vol. 3(1): 9-24 © Research India Publications.
Republic of Kenya (2007).Labour Laws 2007. Nairobi Government Printer.
Republic of Kenya (2010).The Constitution of Kenya 2010.Nairobi Government Printer.
Republic of Kenya (2012).Teachers Service Commission Act, 2012. Nairobi Government Printer.
Republic of Kenya (2013).The Basic Education Act, 2013.Nairobi Government Printer.
Rintaugu, E. G. (2013).Socio-Demographic Factors and Causes of Job Stress of Sports Personnel in Kenyan Universities.Human Resource Management Research (4): 166-172.
Salahudin, S.N., Abdullah, M.M., Hitam, S.B.(nd). Personal Characteristics, Occupational Stress and Turnover Intentions Among School Teachers in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. http://www.pdfcomplete.com
Santiago, M.J., Otero-López, J.M, Castro, C.&Villardefrancos, E. (2008). Occupational stress in secondary school teachers: Examining the role of students’ disruptive behaviour and/or attitudes and the perceived difficulty in conflict management. European Journal of Education and Psychology 2008, Vol. 1, (1): 39-50.
Senthil, K. A., Mohan, S., &Velmurugan, R. (2013). Causes of work stress of teachers in engineering education Asian journal of management research 406 Vol. 3 (2): 406-419.
Skaalvik, E. M. &Skaalvik, S. (2015). Job Satisfaction, Stress and Coping Strategies in the Teaching ProfessionInternational Education Studies; Vol. 8, (3): 181-192.
Shernoff , E.S., Mehta, T. G., Atkins, M. S., Torf , R. & Spencer, J. (2011). A Qualitative Study of the Sources and Impact of Stress among Urban Teachers School.Mental Health (2011) 3:59–69.
Sichambo, M.N., Maragia, S.N., &Simiyu, A.M.(2012). Causes of Burnout among Secondary School Teachers: A Case of Bungoma North District-Kenya. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development Vol. 1 (4): 195-2002.
Siddiqui, F. A. (2012). Occupational stress in teachers: a comparative study of public and private schools in Hyderabad city. Journal of Education Vol.42 Issue 13:62-73.
Sprenger, J. (2011). Stress and Coping Behaviors among Primary School Teachers. A Thesis Presented To the Faculty of the Department of Health Education and Promotion East Carolina University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Arts.
Steyn, G. M. &Kamper, G. D. (2006). Understanding occupational stress among educators: an overview Africa Education, Vol. 3(1): 13-1.
Subbulaxmi, S. (2002). Productivity and stress Vol 3: 26-28.
Sulaiman, F.R. &Akinsanya, P.O. (2014). Stress and instructors’ efficiency in Ogun State Universities: Implications for Nigerian educational policy. African Journal of Guidance and Counseling Vol. 1 (1): 001-00.
Sultana, B., Bano, Y.B., Bano, F. &Shafa, M.D. (2012).The Nature and Impact of Teacher Stress in the Private Schools of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan.International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development ,1(2):64-84.
Syed, G. A., Alain, R. & Muhammad, A. A.(2012). Impact of organizational role stressors on faculty stress & burnout (An exploratory analysis of a public sector university of Pakistan).
Tahir Q. (2011). Effectiveness of Teaching Stress on Academic Performance of College Teachers in Pakistan.International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. 1 (3): 123-129
Tashi, K. (2014). Occupational Stress among Bhutanese Teachers Asian Journal of Management Sciences & Education Vol. 3(2): 71-79 www.ajmse. leena-luna.co.jp.
Tasleema, J., Muddasir, H. M., &Javied, A. (2013). A study of social and family role stress among primary school teachers of district Budgam, j&k, india. Journal of Educational Research and Essays Vol. 1(1): 1- 4 Jan.
Teachers Service Commission (2005).Code of Regulations for Teachers.Teachers Service Commission. Nairobi: Teachers Service Commission.
TJjpti, S., Avantika, S. Prabha, S. (2007). Relationship of Stress and Job Satisfaction: A Comparative Study of Male & Female of Dual Career Teacher Couples of India working paper No.263.
Torres, R.M., Lawver, R.G. & Lambert, D.M. (2009). Job-related stress among secondary agricultural education teachers: A comparison study: Journal of Agricultural Education Vol. 50(3): 100 – 111.
Tsai, E., Fung, L.K.& Chow, B.C. (2006). Sources and Manifestations of Stress in Female Kindergarten Teachers International Education Journal, 7(3): 364-370.
Tsigilis, N. (2011). Burnout among physical education teachers in primary and secondary schools.International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. 1 (7): 53-5.
Tuck, B., Eleanor, H., Manthei, R., Adair, V.Adair& Moore, D. (1999). Sources of occupational stress in New Zealand primary teachers AARE-NZARE Melbourne, Australia.
Usman, Akbar, Ramzan (2013). Effect of Salary and Stress on Job satisfaction of teachers in District Sialkot, Pakistan.Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 15(2):68-74.
Vipinder, N. &Sarita, A. (2013).Occupational stress and health among teacher educators.International Journal of Advanced Research in Management and Social Sciences Vol. 2 ( 8): 1-13.
Wangai, M. M. (2012). Factors affecting job satisfaction among secondary school teachers of Mwatate district, Kenya. Project paper presented as a partial fulfillment for the requirement of the award of certificate in senior management course, Gtiembu, Kenya.
Yambo, J.M.O., Kindiki, J.N. &Tuitoek, J.K.F. (2012).Investigating High School Principals’ Stress in Relation to their Job Experience in Schools in Southern Nyanza Region of Kenya.International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, Vol. 1, (4): 44-63.
Younghusband, L.J. (2005). High School Teachers’ Perceptions of Their Working Environment in Newfoundland: Unpublished PhD thesis School of Graduate Studies
Yusoff, R.B.M., Kha,. A. &Azam, K. (2013). Job Stress, Performance and Emotional Intelligence in Academia. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research J. Basic. Appl. Sci. Res., 3(6):1-8.
Zedan, R. &Bitar, J. (2012).Stress and coping strategies among science elementary school teachers in Israel. Universal Journal of Education and General Studies Vol. 2(3): 084-097.
Santavirta N, Solovieva, S. & Theorell, T. (2007).The association between job strain and emotional exhaustion in a cohort of 1028 Finnish teachers. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77:213-228.
Call for Papers/Books
Call for Scholarly Articles
Authors from around the world are invited to send scholary articles that suits the scope of this journal. The journal is currently open to submissions and will process and publish articles in a timely fashion.
The journal is centered on quality and goes about its processes in a very timely fashion. Seasoned editors/reviewers will be consulted to review each article(s), profer quality evaluations and polish the articles with expertise before publication.
Simply send your article(s) as an e-mail attachment to firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com.
Call for Books
You are also invited to submit your books for online or print publication. We publish books related to all academic subject areas. Submit as an e-mail attachment to firstname.lastname@example.org.