Juma and Simatwa
Greener Journal of Educational Research Vol. 6(3), pp. 115-132, May 2016
Manuscript Number: 051616088
Stress Management Coping Strategies used by Female Principals in Kenya: A Case Study of Rachuonyo North and Homa Bay Sub Counties
Jane K.A. Juma and Enose M.W. Simatwa
Department of Educational Management and Foundations, Maseno University.
School principals in Kenya do experience stress mainly due to administrative related stressors than teaching stressors. Such stressors include: Limited opportunities for professional development, tight time deadlines for tasks, delayed disbursement of school funds, interpersonal relations, social support, expert assistance, work overload among others. Some studies have revealed that both male and female teachers experience same stress levels, while other studies have contradicted these findings by asserting that females experience more stress than males (Gebrekirstos, 2015; Bray, Camlin, Fairbank, Dunteman & Wheeless, 2001). Notwithstanding these contradictions, school principals must embrace coping strategies to function effectively. To collect data for the study, stressor coping strategies questionnaire was used. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to estimate and describe the findings of the study. Accordingly, the study established that female principals experienced stress and used different strategies to cope. The relationship between coping strategies and levels of stress among female principals was strong and significant. The coping strategies accounted for 43.8% of variation in stress levels. The strategies were found to be significant predictors of stress among female principals; and that for one unit increase in the use of the coping strategies, stress level would improve by 0.523 units. The study recommended that stress management coping strategies should be adopted appropriately and used to sustain optimum stress levels among female principals. This is because optimum stress level is good for the functioning of men and women (Bray et al, 2001).
Key Words: Stress Management, Coping Strategies, Female Principals, Kenya: Rachuonyo North and Homa-Bay Sub-Counties.
Abouserie, R. (1996). Stress, Coping and Job satisfaction in University Academic Life.Educational Psychology.
Adams, J.D. (1980). Improving Stress Management: An Action Research Based OD intervention. Understanding and Managing stress. A book of Readings.University Associates, San Diego, California.
Antonio, A.S., Polychrnoni, F., &Vlachaki, A.N. (2006). Gender and age differences in occupational stress and professional burnout between primary and high school teachers in Greece. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 2 Vol. (1)7: 682-692.
Altangerel, O., Ruimei, W., Elahi, E.& Dash, B. (2015). Investigating The Effect of Job Stress on Performance of Employees. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research Vol. 4(2):276-280.
Appley, M.H. (1967).Psychological Stress, New York: Appleton Century Crofts.
Boyland, L. (2011). Job Stress and Coping strategies of elementary principals: A statewide study. Current Issues in Education, 114(3):1-11 retrieved from http:cie.asu.edu/ojs/index.php/cieatasu/article/view/806.
Bray, R.M., Camlin, C.S., Fairbank, J.A., Dunteman, G.H. &Wheeless S.C. (2001). The Effects of stress on Job Functioning of military men and women.Armed Forces Soc. 27 (3):397-417.
Bunce, D. & West, M.A. (1996).Stress Management and Innovative Interventions at work. Human relations, 49(2): 209-32.
Chandolla, T., Brunner, E. & Marmot, M. (2006). Chronic stress at work and the metabolic syndrome: A prospective Study. London: Br Med J: 332:521-524.
Chaplain, R.P. (2001). Stress and Job Satisfaction among primary head teachers: A question of balance? 197-215. London: Education Management Administration.
Cherniss, G. (1980). Professional Burnout in Human Service Organizations, New York: Praeger.
Cohen, L., Manion, L. & Morrison, K. (2007).Research Methods in Education. London: RoutledgeTylors& Francis.
Cook, C. W. &Hunsaker, P. L. (2001). Management and Organizational Behavior (3rd edition).Retrieved from http:// Karlknapp.com/resources/management/mgt300booksummary.doc on 6/10/2014 at 9.00pam.
Creswell, J.W. (2005). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Crossman, A. & Harris, P. (2006). Job Satisfaction of secondary school teachers. Educational Management and Leadership, Vol. 34 (1): 29-46.
Davis, M., Eshelman, E.R.&Mckay, M. (1992).The relaxation and stress reduction workbook. Oakland: New Harbinger publication.
De Nobile, J.J. & McCormick, J. (2005).Job satisfaction and occupational stress in Catholic Primary schools. Paper presented at the Annual conference on the Australian Association for research in education. Sydney: Australia.
Dollard, M.F. (2003). Occupational Stress in the Service professions, New York: Taylor & Francis.
Educational Research Service.(1999). Professional Development for school principals. The informed Educator Series.
Fisher, M.H. (2011). Factors influencing Stress, Burnout, and Retention of Secondary Teachers.Current Issues in Education, 14(1).Retrieved from http://cie.asu.edu.
Fontana, D. (1989). Managing Stress . London: The British Psychological Society and Routledge.
Forlin, C. (2001). Inclusion: Identifying potential stressors for regular class teachers. Educational Research, 43(3): 235-245.
Friedman, I. (1997). High and Low burnout principals: What makes the difference? ERIC Document Number ED410685.
Gebrekirstos, H.A. (2015). Occupational Stress among secondary school Teachers and their coping strategies: The Case of Central Zone of Tigray Region. International Journal of Academic Research in Education and Review.Vol. 3(6):143-157.
Greenhaus, J.H. &Beutell, N. (1985). Working Hours, Work-family Conflict and Work-family Enrichment among Professional Women: A Malaysian Case.2011 International Conference on Social Science and Humanity.Vol.5: 1-4. IACSIT Press, Singapore.
Gonzalez, M.A. (1997).A Study of the relationship of stress, Burnout, hardiness and social support in urban secondary school teachers. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Layola, University of Chicago.Dissertations Abstracts International. Vol. 57 No. 2
Green, F. (2000). The Head teacher in the 21st Century.Being a successful school leader. London: Pearson Education.
Guglielmi, R.S. & Tatrow, K. (1998).Occupational stress, burnout and health in teachers: A Methodological and theoretical analysis. Review of Educational Research, 17(1): 39-52.
Hall, K. & Savery, L.K. (1986).Tight Rein, More stress. Harvard Business Review 23(10): 1162-1164.
Health Promotion Research Trust (1989).Less Stress More Success, Cambridge: Health Promotion Research Trust.
Health and Safety Commission (1990).Managing Occupational Stress: A Guide for managers and Teachers in the Schools Sector, London: HMSO.
Hoyle, E. (1989). The study of schools as organizations. Management in Education: The Management of Organizations and individuals. Ward Lock Education /Open University.
Hughes, R.E. (2001). Deciding to leave but saying: Teacher burnout, precursors and turnover. International journal of Human Resource Management 12(2): 288-98.
Johnson, S., Copper, C., Cartwright, S., Donald, I., Taylor, P. & Millet, C. (2005). The Experience of Work related stress across occupants. New York: J Manage Psycho.
Kelly, M.J. (1991). Occupational Stress among Principals /Director of Public sector educational establishments in the UK. Manchester: UMIST.
Kendi, R.S. (2012). Impact of Occupational stress on head teachers tasks in secondary schools of Kisumu County, Kenya. A Research project submitted for the degree of Master of Education in the School of Educational Management, policy and curriculum studies of Kenyatta University Kenya.
Koech, S.J., Tikoko, B.J., Bernard C., Chemwei, B. (2014). Institutional Factors that influence teacher turnover in public secondary schools in Baringo District.
Koome, I.N. (2007). The Exodus of Principals Teacher Management Issues in East Africa.UNESCO Africa. 17 (10): 6.
Kyriacou, C. (1980). Coping action and organizational stress among school teachers’ research in Education 30 March:20.
Kyrianacou, C., Kunc, R., Stephens, P., &Hutren, A. (1999). Student teachers motivation to become secondary school teacher in England and Norway. Educational Review, 55: 255-263.
Lait, J. &Wallace, J.E. (2002). Stress at work: A study of organizational professional conflict and unmet expectations. Relations Industrielles, 57(3):463-487.
Levi, L. (1987). Occupational Stressors, Biological stress and workers Health.Journal of the University of occupational and environmental Health. (Kitakyuushu, Japan Vol. 11:229-245.
MacPherson, M.A. (1985). Burnout and the School Principal, Canadian Administrator, Vol 2(5): 1-4.
Martha, D., Elizabeth, R.E & Matthew, M. (1988).Relaxation and Stress Reduction Workbook. Oakland: New Haerbinger publications, Inc.
Mbibi, U., Oluchi, F. &Nwamuo, R.I. (2013). Principals’ Perception of stress and stress management strategies by the Junior Secondary school Principals in Abia State. Journal of Educational and Social Research 3(6):139-146.
Mugenda, O.M. &Mugenda, A.G. (2003).Research Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches, Nairobi. ACTS Press.
Murray, T.J. & Forbes, D. (1986). Where have all the middle managers gone? Dun’s Business month, 31-34.
Musyoka, M., Ogutu, M., &Awino, Z. B. (2012). Employee Stress and Performance of Companies listed in the Nairobi Securities Exchange. DBA Africa Management review 2012, Vol. 3 (1):115-129.
Nhundu, T. (1999). Determinants and Prevalence of occupational stress among Zimbabwean school Administrators. New York: Education Administration. Journal of Educational Administration Vol.3 (7):256-272.
Ngari, S.M., Ndungu, A., Mwonya, R., Ngumi, O., Mumiukha, C., Chepchieng, M., &Kariuki, M. (2013).Levels of Stress among secondary school administrators and its implication in education management in Kenya.Academic Journals.Educational Research and Reviews Vol. 8(11):677-681.
Ostell, A. & Oakland, S. (1995). Head teacher stress, coping and health.Aldershot: Avebury.
Phillips, S., Sen, D., McNamee, R. (2008). Risk factors for work related stress and health in head teachers Occupational Medicine (London) 58(8).
Pithers, R. &Sohen, R. (2002).Gender and Age as moderators of the relationship between efficacy of vocational teachers’ personal resources and strain.Australian and New Zealand Journal of Vocational Education Research. 10(2): 45-68.
Poornima, R.(2010). Emotional Intelligence, Occupational Stress and Job satisfaction of Special Education Teachers.P.hD thesis Dept. of Education, Dravidian University, Kuppam.
Quarles, H.R. (1996).Burnout in heads of Independent schools in Southern California, Unpublished PhD Thesis. Dissertations Abstracts International, Vol. 57, No. 7.
Reddy, G.L. (2011) Occupational stress, professional Burnout and job satisfaction of university teachers in South India, UGC major research project, PhD thesis Dept. of Education, Dravidian University, Kuppam.
Republic of Kenya (2007).Labour Laws 2007. Nairobi Government Printer.
Republic of Kenya (2010).The Constitution of Kenya 2010.Nairobi Government Printer.
Republic of Kenya (2012).Teachers Service Commission Act, 2012. Nairobi Government Printer.
Republic of Kenya (2013).The Basic Education Act, 2013.Nairobi Government Printer.
Robbins, S.P. (2001). Organizational Stressors and Job Stress Among Managers: The Moderating Role of Neuroticism. Journal Article. Retrieved from ramayah.com/journalarticlespdf/organizationalstressors.pdf
Schroeder, R.M., Akatia, C.S., &Apekey, A.K. (2001). Stress and Coping among Ghanaian School Teachers, Ife Psychologia: An International Journal. Vol. 9(1): 89-98.
Selye, H. (1956). The Stress of Life. New York. McGraw Hill Books Company.
Shann, M.H. (2001). Professional Commitment and Satisfaction among teachers in urban middle schools. The journal of Educational Research, 92 No. 2: 67-73.
Siddiqui, F.A. (2012). Occupational Stress in Teachers: A comparative study of public and Private schools in Hyderabad City. Journal of Education Vol. 42 Issue 13:62-73.
Sodoma, B. & Else, D. (2009).Job satisfaction of lower public school principals.The Rural Educator, Vol. 31(1): 10-18.
Simpson, T. (1987).Headteachers stress, School Organization, 7, 3:281-5.
Taylor, E.S. (1995). Health Psychology. New York: McGraw Hill, Inc.
Tatar, M. &Yahav, V. (1999).Secondary School Pupil’s perceptions of Burnout among teachers.British journal of Educational Psychology 69:457-68.
Teachers Service Commission.(2005). Teachers Service CommissionCode of Regulations.Nairobi Teachers Service Commission.
Thomas, N., Clarke, V., &Lvery, J. (2003). Self reported work and family stress of teachers. Australian journal of Education, 47(1): 73-88.
Travers, C.J. & Cooper, C.L. (1994).Mental Health, Job Satisfaction and Occupational Stress among UK Teachers, Work and Stress. Vol. 7(3): 205-219.
Von Onciul, (1996). ABC of work Related Disorders: Stress at Work. Retrieved on 6/11/2014 from www.bmj.com/content/313/7059/745 10.30m.
Witte, D.H. (2007). Testing Karaseks learning and strain hypotheses on young workers in their job. Works & Stress. 21(2): 131-141. Retrieved on the 2nd of April, 2008 from URL:http://dox.doi.org/10.1080/026783707014005866.
Woods, A.M. &Weasmer (2002). Maintaining job satisfaction: Engaging professionals as active participants.The Clearing House. 75: 186-189.
World Bank.(1999). Secondary Education. Washington. The International Bank of reconstruction and development.
Yambo, J.M.O., Kindiki, J.N. &Tuitoek, J.K.F. (2012).Investigating High School Principals’ Stress in Relation to their job experience in schools in Southern Nyanza \Region of Kenya International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, Vol. 1 (4): 44-63.
Call for Papers/Books
Call for Scholarly Articles
Authors from around the world are invited to send scholary articles that suits the scope of this journal. The journal is currently open to submissions and will process and publish articles in a timely fashion.
The journal is centered on quality and goes about its processes in a very timely fashion. Seasoned editors/reviewers will be consulted to review each article(s), profer quality evaluations and polish the articles with expertise before publication.
Simply send your article(s) as an e-mail attachment to email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Call for Books
You are also invited to submit your books for online or print publication. We publish books related to all academic subject areas. Submit as an e-mail attachment to email@example.com.