Okutoyi et al
Greener Journal of Educational Research Vol. 6(6), pp. 223-229, November 2016
ISSN: 2276-7789 © 2015 Greener Journals
Manuscript Number: 051916092
Extent Stuttering Effects Occur Among Learners Who Stutter in Primary Schools in Kenya (A Case of Kakamega County)
Okutoyi Joel1, Kochung J. Edward1 and Mbagaya V. Catherine2
1Department of special needs education, Maseno University, P. O Box Private Bag, Maseno
2Department of Educational Psychology, Maseno University, P.O Box Private Bag, Maseno
Stuttering is characterized by repetitions, prolongations, interjections, hesitations and blocks. The prevalence of Persons who Stutter (PWS) in Kenya is 440,000. Kakakmega county has a prevalence of 12,000 PWS, of which 4,400 are schools going age children. Between the years 2010 to 2013, a total of 138 Learners who Stutter (LWS) were assessed and placed in primary schools in Kakamega County. Reports from baseline survey (2014/2015) across primary schools in Kakamega County indicated that LWS performed poorly as they were found in last quarter of the class in examinations. Stuttering has effects such as anxiety, stigma, fear, frustrations and embarrassment to the LWS while speaking. However, the extent to which these effects of stuttering occur in Kakamega is unknown. The purpose of the study was to find out effects of stuttering among LWS. The objective of study was to; establish effects of stuttering among LWS in primary schools and determine the extent to which effects of stuttering occur among LWS in primary schools. The study employed descriptive survey research design. The target population consisted of 84 LWS. Saturated sampling technique was used to select 76 LWS. An instrument of data collection was questionnaire. Validity of the instruments was established using face and content validity. Reliability of the instruments was established through test-retest method. Pearson correlation was used to calculate the coefficient of correlation, where reliability was accepted at 0.7 and above. Reliability for questionnaire of LWS was 0.885. Quantitative data was analyzed using mean. Findings indicated that the extent to which stuttering effects occurred among LWS were as follows; fear to speak (M= 4.5421), frustrations while speaking (M= 4.4507), anxiety to speak (M= 4.3402), embarrassment while speaking (M= 4.30621) and stigma as a result of stuttering (M= 4.2305). The overall extent to which stuttering effects occurred among LWS was to a large extent (mean= 4.37). This implied stuttering effects occurred at a large extent among LWS. Therefore, LWS experience stuttering effects such as anxiety, fear, frustrations, self-stigma and embarrassment while speaking occurred to a large extent. The study recommends that Stuttering effects such as anxiety, fear, frustrations, self-stigma and embarrassment need to be minimized for the learner to achieve in school. Such effects can be minimized through sensitization of other learners and teachers to accept the way LWS speaks. Findings of this study were significant to LWS, teachers, regular learners to understand how effects of stuttering affect LWS in schools.
Key words: effects of stuttering, classroom participation, learner who stutter.
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Stuttering. Retrieved June 25, 2009 from http://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/stuttering.htm
Best, J. & Kahn, T. (2006). Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Nairobi: Longman Publishers. Kenya.
Blood, G.W. & Blood, I.M. (2004). “Bullying in Adolescents who stutter: Communicative Competence and Self-Esteem.”Contemporary Issues in Communication Science and Disorders: 31, 69–79.
Blood, G. W. & Blood, I.M. (2007). “Preliminary Study of Self-Reported Experience of Physical Aggression and Bullying of Boys who stutter: Relation to Increased Anxiety.” Perceptual and Motor Skills;104 (3);1060–1066.
Bloodstein, O.& Berstein, N. (2008)..A Handbook on Stuttering, 6th Ed. Clifton Park, NJ:Thomson Delmer Learning.
Brian, O., Jones, M., Packman, A., Menzies, R., and Oslow, M. (2011).Stuttering Severity and Educational Attainment. Journal of Fluency Disorders; 36 (2): 86-92.
British Stammering Association, (2005).People who Stammer Find their Voices in the Scottish Parliament: the Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee Disability Inquiry.
Butter, T. & Clare, S. (2013). “University?...Hello No: Stammering through Education. International Journal of Educational Research, 59; 57-65.
Craig,A.R.(1990).An Investigation into the Relationship between Anxiety and Stuttering. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 55,290–294.
Craig,A., Hancock, K., and Tran, Y. (2003).Anxiety Levels in People who Stutter. A Randomized Population Study. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 46 (1), 1197–1206.
Davis, S., Howell, P. & Cooke, F. (2002). Sociodynamic Relationships between Children who Stutter and their Non-stuttering Classmates. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43,939–947.
District Education Offices Reports (2013). Unpublished Reports on Learners with Speech Difficulties, Kakamega County.
Dorsey, Michelle and Guenther.K.R.(2000). “Attitudes of Professors and Students toward College Students Who Stutter.”Journal of Fluency Disorders, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 77-83.
Dambudzo, I.I & Schulze, S. (2011). Does the Physical Self-Concept Make a Difference to Academic Achievement? Investigating the Role of Physical Self-Concept on Academic Achievement of Adolescent Learners in Zimbabwe Secondary Schools. Greener Journal of Education Research; 3(1), 7-22.
Dyke, D. C., & Holte, L. (2003).Communication Disorders in Children. Pediatric Annals, 32 (7): 436.
Ezrati-Vinacour, R. & Levin, I. (2004). The Relationship between Anxiety and Stuttering: A Multidimensional Approach. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 29,135–148.
Faust, R. A. (2003). Childhood Voice Disorders: Ambulatory Evaluation and Operative Diagnosis. Clinical Pediatrics, 42, 1–9.
Gabel, R.M., Colcord, R.D.& Petrosino, L. (2002). Reported Anxiety of Adults who do and Do Not Stutter. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 94,775–784.
Gabel, R.M, Hughes, S. & Daniels, D. (2008). Effects of Stuttering Severity and Therapy Involvement on Role Entrapment of Persons who Stutter. Elsevier: Journal of Communication Disorders 41 (2008), 146-158. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0021992407000548 on November 11, 2015 at 9.54 a.m.
Gabel, R. M., Blood, G.W., Tellis, G. M. & Althouse, M. T. (2004). Measuring Role Entrapment of People who Stutter. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 29 (1); 27–49.
Hill, S. (2005, July 2). Stuttering and Its Effects. Retrieved from http://ezinearticles.com/?Stuttering- And- Its- Effects&id=48045.
Hughes, S., Gabel, R., Irani, F. & Schlagheck, A. (2010).University Students Perceptions of the Life Effects of Stuttering. Journal of Communication Disorders. Elsevier; 43 (1).Pp.45-60.
Jaan, P. (2011). Stuttering has Social Consequences. Canadian Stuttering Association. Retrieved from http://www.stutter.ca/article/research-article-summary on April 28, 2013 at 3.00 P.M.
Langevin, M., & Hagler, P.(2004).Development of a Scale to Measure Peer Attitude toward Children Who Stutter. In Evidence-Based Treatment of Stuttering. Empirical Issues and Clinical Implications (ed. A. K. Bothe), pp.139–171.Mahwah, NJ:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Karass, J., Walden, T.A, Conture, E.G, Graham, C.G, Hayley, S.A, Hartfield, K.N & Krista, A.S. (2006). Relation of Emotional reactivity & Regulation to Childhood Stuttering. Journal of Communication Disorders, 2006; 39 (6); 402- 423.
Klein, J.F & Hood, S.B. (2004). The Impact of Stuttering on Employment Opportunities and Job-performance. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 29; 255-273.
Klompas, M. & Ross, E. (2004). Life Experiences of People who Stutter, and the perceived Impact of Stuttering on Quality of Life: Personal Accounts of South African Individuals. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 29, 275-305.
Langevin, T., Marilyn, N. & Hagler, P. (2004). “Development of a Scale to Measure Peer Attitude toward Children who Stutter.” In Evidence-Based Treatment of Stuttering. Empirical Issues and Clinical Implications (ed. A. K. Bothe), pp. 139–171. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Ogutu, T.A. (2005). Children with Stammering Problems. Kenya Institute of Special Needs Education. Nairobi: KISE Printing House.
Rees, D.I & Sabia, J.J. (2011). The Kids Speech: The Effect of Stuttering on Human Capitation Acquisition.
Republic of Kenya, (2007).National Survey on Persons with Disabilities. Ministry of Planning, National Development and Vision 2030. Nairobi: Government Printers.
Republic of Kenya, (2009).National Population and Settlement Census Report. Ministry of Planning, National Development and Vision 2030. Nairobi: Government Printers.
Saraswarthy, R., Myers, J.A (2009). Types of Speech and Language Disorders. Retrieved from http://www.extension.purdue.edu/providerparent/child%20growth-development/typesspeechlangdiso.htm on September 20, 2013 at 12.56 p.m.
Scott, L. (2009). Helping stutterers. Education Digest, Retrieved from http://www.eddigest.html/contentsapr09.html
Schneider, D. J. (2005). The Psychology of Stereotyping. New York: Guilford Press.
Spillers, C.S. (2011). Effects of Stuttering on the Individual. Retrieved from www.d.umn.edu/cspiller/stutteringpage/effects.htm.