Greener Journal of Educational Research

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Okutoyi et al

Greener Journal of  Educational Research Vol. 6(6), pp. 223-229November 2016

 ISSN: 2276-7789 

Research Paper

Manuscript Number: 051916092



Extent Stuttering Effects Occur Among Learners Who Stutter in Primary Schools in Kenya (A Case of Kakamega County)


Okutoyi Joel1, Kochung J. Edward1 and Mbagaya V. Catherine2


1Department of special needs education, Maseno University, P. O Box Private Bag, Maseno

2Department of Educational Psychology, Maseno University, P.O Box Private Bag, Maseno


Stuttering is characterized by repetitions, prolongations, interjections, hesitations and blocks. The prevalence of Persons who Stutter (PWS) in Kenya is 440,000. Kakakmega county has a prevalence of 12,000 PWS, of which 4,400 are schools going age children. Between the years 2010 to 2013, a total of 138 Learners who Stutter (LWS) were assessed and placed in primary schools in Kakamega County. Reports from baseline survey (2014/2015) across primary schools in Kakamega County indicated that LWS performed poorly as they were found in last quarter of the class in examinations. Stuttering has effects such as anxiety, stigma, fear, frustrations and embarrassment to the LWS while speaking.  However, the extent to which these effects of stuttering occur in Kakamega is unknown. The purpose of the study was to find out effects of stuttering among LWS. The objective of study was to; establish effects of stuttering among LWS in primary schools and determine the extent to which effects of stuttering occur among LWS in primary schools. The study employed descriptive survey research design. The target population consisted of 84 LWS. Saturated sampling technique was used to select 76 LWS. An instrument of data collection was questionnaire. Validity of the instruments was established using face and content validity. Reliability of the instruments was established through test-retest method. Pearson correlation was used to calculate the coefficient of correlation, where reliability was accepted at 0.7 and above. Reliability for questionnaire of LWS was 0.885. Quantitative data was analyzed using mean. Findings indicated that the extent to which stuttering effects occurred among LWS were as follows; fear to speak (M= 4.5421), frustrations while speaking (M= 4.4507), anxiety to speak (M= 4.3402), embarrassment while speaking (M= 4.30621) and stigma as a result of stuttering (M= 4.2305). The overall extent to which stuttering effects occurred among LWS was to a large extent (mean= 4.37). This implied stuttering effects occurred at a large extent among LWS. Therefore, LWS experience stuttering effects such as anxiety, fear, frustrations, self-stigma and embarrassment while speaking occurred to a large extent. The study recommends that Stuttering effects such as anxiety, fear, frustrations, self-stigma and embarrassment need to be minimized for the learner to achieve in school. Such effects can be minimized through sensitization of other learners and teachers to accept the way LWS speaks. Findings of this study were significant to LWS, teachers, regular learners to understand how effects of stuttering affect LWS in schools.


Key words: effects of stuttering, classroom participation, learner who stutter.

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