Greener Journal of Education and Training Studies

Excellence and Timeliness

Choose Language

Chitura and Manyanhaire

Greener Journal of Education and Training Studies Vol. 3 (1), pp. 019-023, March 2015.

  ISSN: 2354-225X  

Research Paper

Manuscript Number: 012315018



Female Participation in Mathematics and Statistics Programmes by Open & Distance Learning: Challenges and Experiences


Chitura Miriam1  Manyanhaire Itai Offat2


1Senior Lecturer Health Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology; the  Zimbabwe Open University. Email: miriamchitura @

2Senior Lecturer, Geography and Environmental Studies; the Zimbabwe Open University.

Email: offatmanya @


Corresponding Author’s Email: miriamchitura @yahoo. com.

Address: 22 Houghton Park Road Waterfalls, Harare. Tel: 263-04-781124


Completion rate for female students on the Bachelor of Science Degree programme in Mathematics and Statistics is lower than that of their male counter-parts at the Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU). A cross-sectional survey was conducted to establish the challenges and experiences of female students on an Open and Distance Learning (ODL) Mathematics and Statistics programme. Data was collected using questionnaires to tutors and students.

Registration documents were reviewed to ascertain enrolment ratios for males versus female. Pass and failure rates were analysed as well as student completion rates by gender.

Female participation is low on the ZOU, ODL Mathematics and statistics programme.  It appears drop-out rate is high resulting in low completion rate.  Female students experience frustrations as they try to accomplish academic goals, and at the same time, fulfill their social obligations. The findings indicated the need to examine potential gaps between the inputs of instructor and those of the learner created in part, by gender issues. . The professional and technical support female students receive as they proceed with their studies is key to enrolling and completion of the BSc Mathematics and Statistics programme by ODL.


Key words: completion rate, open distance learning, female, participation.


Backhouse, J. et al (1992) Improving the Learning of Mathematics,Cassell.


Bednarz, N. et al (1996) Approaches to Algebra. Perspectives for Research and Teaching, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996


Bishop, A. et al (1983) A Review of Research in Mathematical Education. NFER-Nelson, 1983.    


Modesto, S. T. Tichapondwa and Tau, D. R. (2009): Introducing Distance Education.VUSSC & BOCODOL.


Nachmias, D. Nachmias, C. (1976) Research Methods in the Social Sciences; New York, N.Y. 10010.


Pym F.R (1992) Women and distance education: a nursing perspective Journal of Advanced Nursing 17 383 – 389.


Thorpe, M. (1993) Evaluating Open and Distance Learning.


Longman Group.  Redwood Books, Trowbridge, Wiltshire.Willis, B. (1986) Distance Education: A practice guide, New Jersey, Englewood cliffs.

Call for Papers/Books/Thesis

Call for Scholarly Articles

Authors from around the world are invited to send scholary articles that suits the scope of this journal. The journal is currently open to submissions and will process and publish articles monthly in two yearly issues.

The journal is centered on quality and goes about its processes in a very timely fashion. Seasoned editors/reviewers will be consulted to review each article(s), profer quality evaluations and polish the articles with expertise before publication.

Simply send your article(s) as an e-mail attachment to or

Call for Books

You are also invited to submit your books for online or print publication. We publish books related to all academic subject areas.    Submit as an e-mail attachment to


Login Form

Other Journals