Fapohunda et al
Greener Journal of Microbiology and Antimicrobials Vol. 2 (3), pp. 049-058, July 2014.
Manuscript Number: 010914026
Microbial Profile in Fillings of Meat Pie in Two Remo Local Government Areas of Ogun State, Nigeria
S.O. Fapohunda*, A.A. Akeredolu, F.A. Alatise and
Department of Biosciences and Biotechnology Babcock University, Ilishan Remo Ogun State, Nigeria.
*Corresponding Author’s Email: oystak @ yahoo.co .uk
A survey of microbial load of meat pie, a ready-to-eat (RTE) food, sold as street vended items as well as in fast food restaurants, was carried out. The focus was on the fillings and study areas were 2 local government areas of Ogun State., Nigeria. The mean microbial load on the fresh meat pie from all the locations ranged from7x103-3x106 cfu/g. Using standard Bergey’ s manual of Determinative Bacteriology,the bacteria isolated from the samples were Staphylococcus epidermidis, Murdochiella asaccharolytica, Peptococcus niger, Lautropia mirabilis, Pasteurella multocida, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Cardiobacterium hominis, Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus, Rickettsiae spp, Enterococcus gallinarum, Micrococcus luteus, Aerococcus urinaehominis, Helicococcus pyogenes, Micrococcus lylae, Propionibacterium acnes, Neisseria polysaccharea, Streptococcus australis. Using molecular methods, the fungal isolates were Neurospora sitophila-IMI 500339 ; Aspergillus flavus-IMI 500338 Aspergillus niger- IMI 500336 and Fusarium solani IMI 500333. The results of the study indicated that, all the meat pie samples studied in Remo L.G.A were heavily contaminated,rendering them unwholesome. Global best practices in food quality is hereby recommended throughout the value chain of the Nigerian food industry.
Keywords: Meat pie fillings, Ogun state, Nigeria, fungi, bacteria, microbial profile.
Adamolekun WE, Adamolekun B (1992). Bacteria associated with food processing. Nig. Med. Pract. 24: 43-45.
Adesiyun AA (1995).Bacteriologic quality of some Trinidadian ready to consume foods and drinks and possible health risks to consumers. J. Food Prot. 58(3): 651-655.
Barro, N., A.R. Bello, Y. Itsiembou, A. Savadogo and C.A.T. Ouattara., 2007. Streetvended foods improvement: Contamination mechanisms and application of food safety objective strategy: Critical review ., 6: 01-10.
Barro N, Iboudo I, Traore AS, (2006). Hygienic status assessment of dishwater, utensils, hands and pieces of money in street food vending sites in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 5: 1107-1112.
Betty CH, Richard JB (1994). Bacterial causes of food poisoning In food poisoning and hygiene.8th edition Edward annod. Publishing limitedLondon pp.250-257
Binder RE, Faling FJ, Pugatch RD, Mahasaen C, Snider GL (1982) Chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis: a discrete clinical entity. Medicine 61:109–124.
Buchanan, R.E. and Gibbons, N.E. (1994). Bergey’s Manual of Determination of Bacteriology. 8th Edition: The Williams and Wikins Co, Baltimore.
Burgess LW (1981). General ecology of the Fusaria, p. 225-235. In P. E. Nelson, T. A. Toussoun, and R. J. Cook (ed.). Fusarium: diseases, biology, and taxonomy. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park.
Caserani,V, Kinston R (1974) Practical cookery,4th edition Edward Arnold Publishers London.pp1-10.
Cencil GBT, Karma M, Rositto PV, Morgante RA, Cullor JS (2003). Enterotoxin production by Staphylococcus aureus isolated from mastitic cows. J. Food Prot. 66 (9): 1693-1696.
Chakrabarti, A., Gupta, V., Biswas, G., Kumar, B. & Sakhuja, V. K. (1998). Primary cutaneous aspergillosis: our experience in 10 years. J Infect 37, 24–27.
Chakrabarti, A., Sethi, S., Raman, D. S. & Behera, D. (). Eightyear study of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in an Indian teaching hospital. Mycoses 45, 295–299.
Denning, D. W. (1998). Invasive aspergillosis. Clin Infect Dis 26, 781–803.
Doyle MP, Evans PD (1999). Food borne pathogens of recent concern. Ann. Revised Nutr. 6:25-41
Duff SB, Scott EA, Mastilios MS, Todd EC, Krilov LRG, Eddes AM, Acknerman SJ (2003).Cost effectiveness of a target disinfection program in household kitchens to prevent food–borne illnesses in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom. J. Food Protect. bb(II). 2103-2105 .
Edema,M.O,Omemu, A.M, Fapetu,O.M (2001) Microbiology and physicochemical analysis of different sources of drinking waterin Abeokuta Nigeria.Nig.J.Microbiol. 15(1):57-61.
Edema MO, Atayese AO, Idowu AO (2005). Microbiological Quality of microwave processed Foods. In: the Book of Abstract of the 29th Annual Conference & General Meeting on Microbes As Agents of Sustainable Development, organized by Nigerian Society for Microbiology (NSM), UNAAB, Abeokuta from 6-10th Nov. p. 17.
Fapohunda S O and Ogundero V W 1990 Physiology of fungi associated with fast foods in Nigeria International Biodeterioration 26 23-32
ER, Sullivan NM (1997). E. coli
rapid detection System a rapid method for the detection of Escherichia
Coli 0157 in milk and other food. J.
protection 60(3): 219-225
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (2007a). "Fish and fisheries products hazards and controls guidance, third edition". Retrieved on 14 October.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA Draft) (2007b). "Guide to minimize microbial food safety hazards of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables". Retrieved on 14 October.
Food and Drug Administration (2007c). "Guidance for Industry: Juice HACCP Hazards and Controls Guidance, First Edition". Retrieved on 14 October.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (2007d). "Managing Food Safety: A HACCP Principles Guide for Operators of Food Establishments at the Retail Level (Draft)". Retrieved on 14 October.
Food Safety Research Information Office (FSRI) (2003). "A Focus on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points". Created June 2003, Updated March 2008.
Frost, G.M and Moss. D.A (1987) Production of Enzymes by fermentation. In: RehmHJ, Reed G (eds) Biotechnology,Vol 7a.VCH, Weinheim, pp 66-102.
Hawthorne, B. T., Rees-George, J., & Boradhurst, P. G. (1992). Mating behavior and pathogenicity of New Zealand isolates of Nectria haematococca (Fusarium solani).
Hazariwala A, Sanders Q Hudson CR, Hofacre C, Thayer SG, Mauer JJ (2002). Distribution of Staphylococci enterotoxin genes among Staphylococcus aureus isolates from poultry and humans with invasive Staphylococcal disease Avian Diseases 46(1): 132-136.
Hope, W. W., Walsh, T. J. & Denning, D. W. (2005). The invasive and saprophytic syndromes due to Aspergillus spp. Med Mycol 43 (Suppl. 1), S207–S238.
Hussain, S., Salahuddin, N., Ahmad, I., Salahuddin, I. & Jooma, R. (1995). Rhinocerebral invasive mycosis: occurrence in immunocompetent individuals. Eur J Radiol 20, 151–155.
Ibekwe AC, Okafor JI (1983) Pathogenic organisms in chronic suppurative otitis media in Enugu, Nigeria. Trop Geogr Med 35:389–391.
(1990). Fermented sausage –dry and semi-dry. In meat science and Technology 1st
edition .The African
limited Nigeria p. 210.
Iwen, P. C., Rupp, M. E. & Hinrichs, S. H. (1997). Invasive mold sinusitis: 17 cases in immunocompromised patients and review of the literature. Clin Infect Dis 24, 1178–1184.
Kennedy, C. A., Adams, G. L., Neglia, J. P. & Giebink, G. S. (1997). Impact of surgical treatment on paranasal fungal infections in bone marrow transplant patients. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 116, 610–616.
Li, D., Chung, K. R., Smith, D. A., & Schardl, C. L. (1995). The Fusarium solani gene encoding kievitone hydratase, a secreted enzyme that catalyzes detoxification of a bean phytoalexin. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 8, 388–397.
Mensah P, Yeboah MD, Owusu DK, Ablordey A. 2002. Street foods in Accra, Ghana: how safe are they? Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 80 (7): 546- 554.
Morgan, J., Wannemuehler, K. A., Marr, K. A., Hadley, S., Kontoyiannis, D. P., Walsh, T. J., Fridkin, S. K., Pappas, P. G. & Warnock, D. W. (2005). Incidence of invasive aspergillosis following hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplantation: interim results of a prospective multicenter surveillance program. Med Mycol 43 (Suppl. 1), S49–S58.
Morrow, P. E. (1980). Physics of airborne particles and their deposition in the lung. Ann N Y Acad Sci 353, 71–80.
DAA, Van NN (1990). Staphylococcus aureus and related Staphylococci in food: Ecology, proliferation,
toxigenesis, Control and Monitoring. J.
Symp. Suppl. 69(19): 123-146.
Muinde, O.K. and E. Kuria, 2005. Hygienic and sanitary practices of vendors of street foods in Nairobi, Kenya. Afr. J. Food Agric Nutr. Dev. 5: 1-15.
Munkvold GP, Desjardins AE (1997). Fumonisins in maize: Can we reduce their occurrence? Plant Dis., 81: 556–564.
Naeimi S, Hejarood G, Okhovat S, Khosravi V, Padasht F (2002). Introduction of funguses associated with rice sheath rot in Mazandaran and Gilan. 15th Plant Protection Congress, Kermanshah, Iran, p. 74-75.
Nejatsalari A, Ershad J (1994). Isolation of six species of Fusarium from seeds. 11th Plant Protection Congress, Rasht, Iran. p. 46. Nelson PE, Dignani MC, Anaissie EJ (1994). Taxonomy, biology, and clinical aspects of Fusarium species. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 4: 479- 504.
Nelson,P.E, M.C.Dignani and E.J Anaissie(1994).Taxonomy, biology and clinical aspects of fusarium species. Clinical Microbiol Rev 7: 479-504
Nime FA, Hutchins GM (1973) Oxalosis caused by Aspergillus infection. Johns Hopkins Med J 133:183–194.
Ojeibun FI (1994). Isolation of Staphylococcus aureus and other bacteria from some ready to eat foods sold in Benin city. B.sc Hon Thesis University of Benin, Benin city p. 100.
Panda, N. K., Sharma, S. C., Chakrabarti, A. & Mann, S. B. (1998). Paranasal sinus mycoses in north India. Mycoses 41, 281–286.
Pasqualotto, A. C. & Denning, D. W. (2006). Post-operative aspergillosis. Clin Microbiol Infect 12, 1060–1076.
M (2003) Analysis of microbial Hazards related to time/ temperature control of
foods for safety comprehensive Review in
Science and food
safety 2: 33-35.
Pitt JI, Hocking AD (1999) Fungi and food spoilage. Second edition. Aspen Publication, Inc. Gaithersburg, Maryland, pp. 69-72.
Rossman, A. Y., Samuels, G. J., Rogerson, C. T., & Lowen, R. (1999). Genera of Bionectriaceae, Hypocreaceae and Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycetes). Studies in Mycology, 42, 1–248.
Roukas T (2000) Citric and gluconic acid production from fig by Aspergillus niger using solid state fermentation. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 25:298–304
Salleh B (2007). Fusarium species in Malaysia. In: Jones, E.B.G, Hyde, K.D. and Vikineswary, S. (eds). Malaysian Fungal Diversity. Mushroom Research Centre, University of Malaya and Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Malaysia. Chapter 23. pp. 235- 250.
Severo,L.C,Geyer G.R, Da Silva Porto, N,Wagner, M.B, Londero, A.T(1997) Pulmonary Aspergillus niger colonization.Report of 23 cases and reviewof the literature.Rev Iberoam Micol 14:104-110.
Talaro K, and Talaro, A (1996). Foundations in Microbiology 2nd Edition Mc- Graw Hill Publishers USA. pp. 840-841.
Torok TJ, Tauze RV, Wise RP, Livengood JR, Sokolow R, and Manvans S (1997). A large community outbreak of Salmonellosis caused by International contamination of a restaurant salads /bars. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 278(8): 389-395.
Tsang D (2002). Microbiological guidelines for ready to eat food Road and Environmental Hygiene department Hong Kong pp.115-116.
Van Burik, J. A., Colven, R. & Spach, D. H. (1998). Cutaneous aspergillosis. J Clin Microbiol 36, 3115–3121.
Van Etten, H. D. (1978). Identification of additional habitats of Nectria haematococca mating population VI. Phytopathology, 68, 1552–1556.Wiley & Sons, Inc, New York.
WHO, 2002. Global strategy for food safety: Safer food for better health. World Health Organization, Geneva Switzerland ISBN924154574.
Zamanizadeh HR, Khorsandi H (1995). Occurrence of Fusarium species and their mycotoxin in wheat in Mazandaran province, Iran. Iranian J. Plant Pathol., 31: 23-37.
Call for Paper/Books
Call for Scholarly Articles
Authors from around the world are invited to send scholary articles that suits the scope of this journal. The journal is currently open to submissions and will process and publish articles monthly in two yearly issues.
The journal is centered on quality and goes about its processes in a very timely fashion. Seasoned editors/reviewers will be consulted to review each article(s), profer quality evaluations and polish the articles with expertise before publication.
Simply send your article(s) as an e-mail attachment to firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com.
Call for Books
You are also invited to submit your books for online or print publication. We publish books related to all academic subject areas. Submit as an e-mail attachment to firstname.lastname@example.org.