Alsadig et al
Greener Journal of Microbiology and Antimicrobials Vol. 2 (4), pp. 064-069, August 2014.
Manuscript Number: 0515014238, doi:10.15580/GJSETR.2014.4.0515014238
Detection of Antibiotic Resistance of Pathogenic Bacteria Recovered from Cutaneous Lesions of Human Leishmaniasis Patients in Khartoum State (Sudan)
Alsadig Mohammed Abdalla*1, Sheren Ahmed Saeed2,
1Department of Microbiology-Faculty of Medicine-Sebha University-Libya.
2Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.
*Corresponding Author’s Email: alsadig58 @yahoo .com
The purpose of this work was to investigate the presence of pathogenic bacteria in lesions of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis wounds and the pattern of susceptibility to antibiotics, in order to study the prevalence of secondary bacterial infection in ulcerated lesions and its relationship to the healing process. Twenty samples from leishmaniotic patients attended at the Institute of Endemic Diseases-University of Khartoum were evaluated. The criteria for inclusion of patients in this work were based on a positive clinical diagnosis of CL ulcer together with laboratory analysis. The bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus in 9 cases (45%), coagulase negative Staphylococcus in 11 cases (55%).
Forty four percent of the S. aureus were
resistant to methicillin and vancomycin, 56% to erythromycin, and 78% to amoxicillin.
45% of the coagulase negative Staphylococci were resistant to methicillin, 55%
to vancomycin and amoxicillin. All the Staphylococcus isolates
Keywords: Cutaneous leishmaniasis, bacterial, secondary infection.
Alsamarai AM and AlObaidi HS (2009). Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iraq. J. Infect Developing Countries; 3(2):123-129.
Assadullah S, Kakru DK, Thoker MA, Bhat FA, Hussain N, Shah A (2003). Emergence of low level vancomycin resistance in MRSA. Indian J Med Microbiol; 21:1-3.
Barrow GI, Feltham RKA (2003). Cowan and Steels. Manual for identification of Medical bacteria 2nd ed, Cambridge, university press, 331 p.
Berhe N, Hailu A, Abraham Y, Tadesse Y, Breivik K, Abebe Y (2001). Inter-current and nosocomial infections among visceral leishmaniasis patients in Ethiopia: an observational study. Acta Trop. Oct 22; 80 (2): 87-95.
Bowler PG, Duerden BI, Armstrong DG (2001). Wound microbiology and associated approaches to wound management. Clin. Microbiol Rev. 14(2): 244–269.
Cheesbrough M (2000). District laboratory practice in tropical countries. part 2; Cambridge University Press. UK. 434 p.
Claúdia O Fontes, Maria Auxiliadora R Carvalho, Jacques R Nicoli, Junia S Hamdan, Wilson Mayrink, Odair Genaro, Luiz S Carmo and Luiz M Farias (2005). Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of micro-organisms recovered from cutaneous lesions of human American tegumentary leishmaniasis in Minas Gerais, Brazil. J Med Microbiol 54, 1071-1076;
El-Hassan AM, Zijlstra EE (2001). Leishmaniasis in Sudan. Cutaneous leishmaniasis. Trans R Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. Apr;95 (1):S1-17.
Elamin EM, Guizani I, Guerbouj S, Gramiccia M, El Hassan AM, Di Muccio T, Taha MA, Mukhtar MM (2008). Identification of Leishmania donovani as a cause of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sudan. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 102, (1): 54-57.
Grasa JM, Lorente J, Crego F, Naches S, Subirana FX, Calderon JR, Pollan C, Encarnacion LF, Quesada P (2000). Nasal leishmaniasis in an HIV-positive patient. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp. 51(2): 169-173.
González U, Pinart M, Reveiz L, Alvar J (2008). Interventions for Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis. Copyright © The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Grogi M, Thomason TN, Franke ED (1991). Drug resistance in leishmaniasis: its implications in systemic chemotherapy of cutaneous and mucocutaneous disease. Am J. Trop. Med. Hyg.; 47(1):117–26.
Hengameh Z and Sadeghian G (2008). Isolation of bacteria causing secondary bacterial infection in the lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis Indian J Dermatol.; 53(3): 129–131.
Jun IS, Tomoko F, Katsutoshi S, Hisami K, Haruo N, Akihiko K (2004). Prevalence of erythromycin, tetracycline and aminoglycoside resistance genes in methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hospitals in Tokyo and Kumamoto. Jpn J Infect Dis; 20:361-64.
Lezama-Dávila CM, Isaac-Márquez AP, Padierna-Olivos J, Aguilar-Torrentera F, Chapa-Ruiz R (1998). Immuno-modulation of chiclero's ulcer. Role of eosinophils, T cells, tumour necrosis factor and interleukin-2. Scand J Immunol. 47(5): 502-508.
Mehta AP, Rodrigues C, Sheth K, Jani S, Hakimiyan A, Fazalbhoy N (1998). Control of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a tertiary care center-Afive year study. J Med Microbiol; 16: 31-34.
Neupane S, Sharma P, Kumar A, Paudel U and Pokhrel DB. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: Report of rare cases in Nepal. Nepal Med Coll J 2008; 10(1): 64-67
Qureshi AH, Rafi S, Qureshi SM, Ali AM (2004). The current susceptibility patterns of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to conventional anti Staphylococcus antimicrobials in Rawalpindi. Pak J Med; 20: 361-64.
Sader HS, Jones RN, Silva JB, The SENTRY Participants Group (Latin America) (2002). Skin and soft tissue infections in Latin America medical centers: four-year assessment of the pathogen frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Diagn. Microbiol Infect. Dis, 44(3): 281–288.
Summanen, P. H., D. A. Talan, C. Strong, M. McTeague, R. Bennion, J. E. Thompson, M. L. Vaisanen, G. Moran, M. Winer, and S. M. Finegold. (1995). Bacteriology of skin and soft-tissue infections: comparison of infections in intravenous drug users and individuals with no history of intravenous drug use. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20(2):S279–S282.
Singh S, Sivakumar R (2003). Recent advances in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. JPGM, 49(1): 55-60.
Tannock GW (1999). The normal microflora: an introduction. In Medical Importance of the Normal Microflora (Tannock GW. Ed) , pp. 1–23. Kluwer Academic Publishers. London UK
Vega-Lopez F, Hay RJ (2004). Parasitic worms and Protozoa-Leishmaniasis. In Burns T, Breathnach S, Cox N, Griffiths C, editors Rook’s Textbook of Dermatology (7th edition); Massachussetts; Blackwell Science; 32: 35-46.
Isaae-Marquez AP, Lezama-Dàvila CM (2003). Detection of pathogenic bacteria in skin lesions patients with chiclero's ulcer, Reluctant response to antimonial treatment. Mem Inst. Oswaldo Cruz.; 98(3):1993–1995.
Call for Paper/Books
Call for Scholarly Articles
Authors from around the world are invited to send scholary articles that suits the scope of this journal. The journal is currently open to submissions and will process and publish articles monthly in two yearly issues.
The journal is centered on quality and goes about its processes in a very timely fashion. Seasoned editors/reviewers will be consulted to review each article(s), profer quality evaluations and polish the articles with expertise before publication.
Simply send your article(s) as an e-mail attachment to firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com.
Call for Books
You are also invited to submit your books for online or print publication. We publish books related to all academic subject areas. Submit as an e-mail attachment to firstname.lastname@example.org.