Yaguo et al
Greener Journal of Medical Sciences Vol. 5 (3), pp. 048-052, June 2015.
ISSN: 2276-7797 © 2015 Greener Journals
Manuscript Number: 030815042
Dipstick Urinalysis in apparently healthy Neonates in Port Harcourt
*1Yaguo Ide Lucy Eberechukwu, 1Opara Peace Ibo, 1Uchenwa-Onyenegecha Tochi Ada
1Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria, West Africa P.M.B 6173.
Corresponding Author’s E-mail: lucyaguolucy@ gmail. com. Phone: +2348109864336
Background: Dipstick urinalysis, which is a simple but very important diagnostic procedure in paediatric nephro-urology, provides information about multiple physicochemical properties of urine. It detects common urinary abnormalities in children which could result from a wide range of conditions. Proteinuria, haematuria and glycosuria for example may be pointers to serious underlying pathologies in the newborn. This study was undertaken to determine baseline findings on dipstick urinalysis in healthy neonate in Port Harcourt as there is paucity of such a study in our environment.
Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in the post natal wards of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Dipstick urinalysis was carried out on clean catch urine samples from 180 healthy full-term and near term breast-fed neonates, without maternal morbidities or personal pathological antecedents within the first 48 hours of life.
Results: Gestational ages ranged from 35-42 weeks mean of 38.54±1.38, mean birth weight of 3.26 ± 0.55kg and a male: female ratio of 1: 1.1. Haematuria glycosuria and ketonuria were not identified in any baby. All urine samples were also negative for nitrites and leucocytes. Proteinuria was present in 3 (1.7%) of the babies.
Conclusion: Haematuria , glycosuria and ketonuria are not common in apparently healthy neonates in Port Harcourt. Presence of nitrites and leucocytes are unusual. Proteinuria, haematuria and glycosuria in the neonates should be further investigated for underlying pathologies.
Key words: Dipstick urinalysis, healthy, neonates.
Abdurrahman MB, Chakrabarty DP, Ochoga SA (1978). Bacteriuria and other urinary abnormalities among primary school children in Kaduna. Nig J Paediatr 5: 21-24.
Adedoyin OT, Akindele JA, Ajayi OA, Okesina AB (2000). Urinalysis in clinically stable Nigerian Newborns. Nig J Paediatr 27(1-2):1-5.
Akor F, Okolo SN, Agaba EI, Okolo A (2009). Urine examination findings in apparently healthy new school entrants in Jos, Nigeria. SAJCH 3: 60-63.
Alharthi AA, Taha AA, Edrees AE, Elnawawy AN, Abdelrahman AH (2014). Screening for urine abnormalities among children in Western Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J 35: 1477-1481.
Devillé W, Yzermans J, Van Duijn N, Bezemer PD, Van der Windt D, Bouter LM (2004). The urine dipstick test useful to rule out infections. A meta-analysis of the accuracy. BMC Urology 4:4.
Edelmann CM, Ogwo JE, Fine BP, Martinez AB (1973). The prevalence of bacteriuria in full term and premature newborn infants. J Pediatr 82: 125-132.
El-Taayeb M, El Setouhy M, ElSayed H, ELshahawy Y (2010). Screening of proteinuria in young adults. Is it worthwhile/ Dialysis Transpl 39:522-526.
Falakaflaki B, Mousavinasab SN, Mazloomzadeh S (2011). Dipstick urinalysis screening of healthy neonates. Pediatr Neonatol 52:161-164.
Gansevoort RT. Bakker SJL, de Jong PE (2006). Early detection of progressive chronic kidney disease : is it feasible [comment]. J Am Soc Nephrol 17: 1218-1220.
Glissmeyer EW, Korgenski EK, Wilkes J, Schunk JE, Sheng X, Blaschke AJ et al (2014). Dipstick screening for urinary tract infection in febrile infants. Pediatrics 133: 1121-1127.
Gorelick M, Shaw KN (1999). Screening tests for urinary tract infection in children: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics 104:54.
Guignard JP, Drukker A. Clinical neonatal nephrology. In: Barratt TM, Avner ED, Harmon WE eds. Pediatric Nephrology. 4th edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000;p. 1051–1066.
Hajar F, Taleb M, Aoun B, Shatila A (2011). Dipstick Urine analysis screening among asymptomatic school children. North Am J Med Sci 3:179-184.
Hanef R,Ally SH, Julal-ud-din, Khan K (2006). Effectiveness of routine urinalysis of patient attending rural health centers in Abbottabad. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 18:63-64.
Ibe BC. Neonatal Jaundice. In: Azubuike J.C, Nkanginieme KEO. Editors. Paediatrics and Child Health in a Tropical Region. 2nd edition. University of Port Harcourt Press. 2007;p209-210.
Ikimalo FE, Eke FU, Nkanginieme KEO, Ikimalo J (2003). Urinary screening for detection of asymptomatic haematuria and proteinuria in children in urban and periurban schools in Port Harcourt. Nig J Paediatr 30:1-6.
Iseki K, Iseki C, Ikemiya Y, Fukiyama K (1996). Risk of developing end stage renal disease in a cohort of mass screening. Kidney Int 49: 800-805.
Johnson DW, Jones GRD, Mathew TH, Ludlow MJ, Chadban SJ, Usherwood T et al (2012). Chronic Kidney Disease and measurement of albuminuria or proteinuria: a position statement. Med J Aust 197:224-225.
Leung AK, Wong AH (2010). Proteinuria in children. Am Fam Physician 82:645-651.
Mcpherson AR, Ben-Ezra J, Zhao S. Basic examination of urine. In: Mcpherson AR, Pincus RM editor. Henry’s Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 21st edition. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 2007; p. 393-425.
McTaggart S (2005). Childhood urinary conditions. Aust Fam Physician 34: 937-941.
Nebigil I, Tumar N (1992). Asymtomatic urinary tract infection in childhood. Eur J Pediatr 151:308-309.
Patel HP (2006). The Abnormal Urinalysis. Pediatr Clin North Am 53: 325-337.
Rhodes PG, Hammel CL, Berman LB (1962). Urinary constituents of the newborn infant. J Pediatr 60: 18-23.
Shajari A, Zadeh FMH, Shajari H (2007). screening of renal diseases in the first primary school children in Shiraz. Acta Medica Iranica 45: 215-218. Available from: http://acta.tums.ac.ir/index.php/acta/article/download/3205/2891.
Simonetti GD, Konrad M (2006). Examination of urine in the child. Ther Umsch 63:579-584.
Whiting P, Westwood M, Bojke L, Palmer S, Richardson G, Cooper J et al (2006). Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of tests for the diagnosis and investigation of urinary tract infection in children: a systematic review and economic model. Health Technol Assess 10:iii–iv, xi–xiii, 1-154.
Whiting P, Westwood M, Watt I, Cooper J, Kleijnen J (2005). Rapid tests and urine sampling techniques for the diagnosis of Urinary tract infection in children under five years: a systematic review. BMC Pediatrics 5:4.