Yaguo et al
Greener Journal of Medical Sciences Vol. 5 (3), pp. 043-047, June 2015.
Manuscript Number: 030815041
Renal function of post neonatal tetanus cases as seen in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital
1Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria, West Africa P.M.B 6173. E-mail: email@example.com,
2Department of Radiology, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria, West Africa P.M.B 6173. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
3Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria, West Africa P.M.B 6173. E-mail: email@example.com
Corresponding Author’s Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, phone: +2348109864336
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a known complication of tetanus and contributes to morbidity and mortality among children with tetanus. The aim of this study was to ascertain the renal functions in patients with post neonatal tetanus over a 4year peroid.
Methods: All cases of post neonatal tetanus admitted into the department of Paediatrics UPTH between October 2009 to April 2013 were recruited and studied. The renal function studies done included urinalysis, serum electrolytes, urea and creatinine, renal ultrasound scan and fluid input and output monitoring.
Results: 17 cases of post neonatal tetanus were studied. There were 9(53%) males and 8(47%) females giving a male female ratio of 1.1:1. The ages of the patients ranged from 2-16years with a mean age of 9.81±4.4years. Most cases were above 5years of age(13(76.5%). Of the 17 cases only 2(11.8%) were fully immunised. The mean laboratory values were: serum creatinine 55.8±4.9umol/L, urea 2.5±1.1mmol/L, sodium 132.8±3.3mmol/L, potassium 3.6±0.7mmol/L and bicarbonate 22.3±4.9mmol/L which were all within the normal range for our laboratory. The urinalysis and renal ultrasound findings were also normal. None of our patient had oliguria.
Conclusion: AKI as a complication of post neonatal tetanus is uncommon in paediatric patients.
Key words: Post neonatal tetanus, Children, Renal function.
Adekanle O, Ayodeji OO, Olatunde LO (2009). Tetanus in a Rural Setting of South-Western Nigeria: a Ten-Year Retrospective Study. Libyan J Med 4: 78-80.
Akani NA, Nte AR, Oruamabo RS (2004). Neonatal tetanus in Nigeria: One social scourge too many! Nig J Paediatr 31: 1-9.
Alhaji MA, Akuhwa RT, Mustapha MG, Ashir GM, Mava Y, Elechi HA (2013). Post neonatal tetanus in University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Northeastern Nigeria. Niger J Paed 40: 154-7.
Anah MU, Etuk IS, Ikpeme OE, Ntia HU, Ineji EO, Archibong RB (2008). Post Neonatal Tetanus in Calabr Nigeria: A 10 Year Review. Niger Med Pract 54: 45-7.
Bhatia R, Prabhakar S, Grover VK (2002). Tetanus. Neurol India 50: 398-407.
Cook TM, Protheoze RT, Handel JM (2001). Tetanus: A review of literature. Br J Anaesth 87: 477-87.
Daher EF, Abdulkader RC, Motti E, Marcondes M, Sabbaga E, Burdmann EA (1997). Prospective study of tetanus- induced acute renal dysfunction. Role of adrenergic overactivity. Am J Trop Med Hyg 57: 610-4.
Gbadegesin RA, Adeyemo AA, Osinusi K (1996). Childhood post neonatal tetanus. Nig J Paediatr 23: 11-5.
Hilton AR (2006). Acute renal failure. BMJ 333: 786-90.
Kaur S, Mishra,D, Juneja M (2014). Acute renal failure in tetanus. Indian J Pediatr 81: 207.
Mallick IH, Winslet MC (2004). A review of the epidemiology, pathogenesis and management of tetanus. Int J Surg 2: 109-12.
Martinelli R, Matos CM, Rocha H (1993). Tetanus as a cause of acute renal failure: Possible role of rhabdomyolysis. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 26: 1-4.
Moura Filho FR, Mendonca PR, Lima EB, Silva JS, Pinho ML, Mota RM et al (2008). Acute renal failure and other clinical features in tetanus patients from northeastern Brazil. Ann Trop Med Public Health 1: 52-5.
Ojini FI, Danesi MA (2005). Mortality of tetanus at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Trop Doct 35: 178-81.
Oruamabo RS. Neonatal Tetanus. In : Paediatrics and Child health in a Tropical Region. Azubuike JC, Nkanginieme KEO. eds 2nd edition. University of Port Harcourt Press. 2007;Pg 217.
Oyedeji OA, Fadero F, Joel-Madewase V, Elemile P, Oyedeji GA (2012). Trends in neonatal and post neonatal tetanus admissions at a Nigerian Teaching Hospital. J Infect Dev Ctries 6: 847-53.
Oyelami OA, Aladekomo TA, Ononye FO (1996). A 10 year retrospective evaluation of cases of post neonatal tetanus seen in a paediatric unit of a university teaching hospital in south western Nigeria 1985 – 1994. Cent Afr J Med 42: 73-5.
Pinder M (1997). Controversies in the management of severe tetanus. Intensive Care Med 14: 129-43.
Seydi M, Soumare M, Gbangba-Ngai E, Ngadeu JF, Diop BM, N'diaye B, et al (2005). Current aspects of pediatric and adult tetanus in Dakar. Med Mal Infect 35: 28-32.
WHO vaccine-preventable diseases: monitoring system.2014 global summary.[internet][updated 2014 Dec 5; cited 2015 Feb 10]. Available from http//www.apps.who.int/immunization-monitoring/globalsummary.
Wilkins CA, Richter MB, Hobbs WB, Whticomb M, Bergh N, Carstens J (1988). Occurrence of Clostridium tetani in soil and horses. S Afr Med J 73: 718-20.
Yaguo Ide LE, Nte AR (2011). Post neonatal tetanus: an apparently ‘neglected’ disease? HMRJ 9/10: 24-29.
Yaguo Ide LE, Nte AR (2012). Neonatal and post neonatal tetanus in Nigeria: the time to act is now. HMRJ 11/12: 55-64.
Call for Papers/Books/Thesis
Call for Scholarly Articles
Authors from around the world are invited to send scholary articles that suits the scope of this journal. The journal is currently open to submissions and will process and publish articles monthly in two yearly issues.
The journal is centered on quality and goes about its processes in a very timely fashion. Seasoned editors/reviewers will be consulted to review each article(s), profer quality evaluations and polish the articles with expertise before publication.
Simply send your article(s) as an e-mail attachment to email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Call for Books
You are also invited to submit your books for online or print publication. We publish books related to all academic subject areas. Submit as an e-mail attachment to email@example.com.