Ughachukwu et al
Greener Journal of Medical Sciences Vol. 7 (2), pp. 022-031, March 2017.
Manuscript Number: 022717028
Effect of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Ocimum Gratissimum on some Haematological Indices in Rats Treated with Zidovudine-containing Antiretroviral Drugs
Ughachukwu PO*1, Okonkwo PO1, Nwozor CM2, Okafor IJ3, Nwafia IN4, Ochiogu BC5
1Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics,College of Medicine, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University.
2Department of Human Physiology, College of Medicine, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University.
3Department of Anatomy,College of Medicine, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University.
4Department of Medical Microbiology,College of Medicine, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University.
5Department of Ophthalmology,College of Medicine, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University.
Background: Anaemia, one of the manifestations of HIV/AIDS, could be worsened by zidovudine-containing antiretroviral therapy. This may result in discontinuation of therapy, drug resistance, and increased mortality and morbidity. The medicinal plant, Ocimum gratissimum, is credited with haematopoetic properties. The study is aimed at finding out if the leaf extract of this plant will protect against anaemia in zidovudine-containing antiretroviral therapy. Methodology: 25 adult rats of both sexes were divided into 5 groups (A, B C, D, E) of 5 animals per group and given oral antiretroviral drugs and extract as follows: A (normal feeds only), B (efavirenz 8.6 mg/kg, abacavir 8.6 mg/kg, zidovudine 4.3 mg/kg), C (extract 80 mg/kg), D (efavirenz 8.6 mg/kg, abacavir 8.6 mg/kg, zidovudine 4.3 mg/kg, plus extract 40 mg/kg), E (efavirenz 8.6 mg/kg, abacavir 8.6 mg/kg, zidovudine 4.3 mg/kg, plus extract 80 mg/kg ) all for 28 days. Thereafter, blood samples were collected and analyzed for haemoglobin and packed cell volume values using autoanalyzer. Data were tested for normality and further analyzed for statistical significance using Kruskal-Wallis test plus Dunn’s multiple comparison using Graph Pad Prism 7.0. Results: Mean values (± S.E.M.) of haemoglobin were 12.7± 0.7, 13.7± 0.8, 11.6 ± 1.4, 12.2 ±1.7, and 13.9 ± 1.0 for groups A, B, C, D, and E respectively. Mean values (± S.E.M.) of Packed Cell Volume (PCV) are 38.2± 2.2, 41.4 ± 2.2, 35.0 ± 4.1, 36.8 ± 4.9, and 41.3 ± 3.0 for groups A, B, C, D, and E respectively. Dunn’s multiple comparison test did not yield any statistically significant differences (P values 0.7368 and 0.7325 for haemoglobin and PCV values respectively). Conclusion: The results show that neither antiretroviral drugs nor extract affected the haemoglobin level or the PCV in the rats during the course of this experiment.
Key words: Antiretroviral drugs, haemoglobin, ocimum gratissimum, rats, zidovudine.
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