Muhammad et al
Greener Journal of Medical Sciences Vol. 7 (3), pp. 032-035, June 2017.
Manuscript Number: 052117065
Deficiency of Serum Alphatocopherol among Oral Hormonal Based Contraceptives Users in Sokoto Metropolis, Nigeria
*1Muhammad Y, 2Kani YA, 3Umar FA and 4Zainab I
1Department of Chemical Pathology, School of Medical Laboratory Science, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto.
2CollegeOf Medicine and Health Sciences, Federal University Dutse.
3Public Health and Diagnostic Institute, Northwest University Kano, Nigeria.
4Department of Hematology and Blood bank, Rasheed Shekoni Specialist Hospital Dutse.
Alphatocopherol is the main naturally occurring antioxidant substance capable of scavenging free radicals induced by pathological conditions; evidence is accumulating regarding the involvement of oxidative stress among the contraceptive users. The current research consisted of 75 contraceptive users and 42 apparently healthy age-matched controls. Serum levels of alphatocopherol are measured in accordance with method of Neil and Pearson (1907). Statistically (p<0.005) significant higher levels of alphatocopherol was observed among the contraceptive users compared to the control groups, No statistical difference was detected in different age groups. Alphatocopherol and other antioxidant supplementation should be encouraged among contraceptive users to alleviate oxidative stress.
Key words: Alphatocopherol, Contraceptives, Oxidative Stress, Free radicals.
Agarwal, A, Gupta, S and Sharma, R. K. (2005) “Role of oxidative stress in female reproduction,” Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, vol. 14, pp. 3–28, 2005.
Akinloye, O., Adebayo, T.O., Oguntibeju, O.O., Oparinde, D.P. and Ogunyemi, E.O. (2011) Effects of Contraceptives on Serum Trace Elements, Calcium and Phosphorus Levels. West Indian Medical Journal, 60, 308-315.
Amy, J.J., Tripath, V. (2009).“Contraception for Women. An evidence based overview”. BMJ 339:b2895.
Ash M., Keith E., Ailsa E., et al. (2006). Fertility control. Gynecology by Ten Teachers; 18th ed. 8:59–66.
Cutler R. (2005). Oxidative stress profiling: part I. Its potential importance in the optimization of human health. Ann NY Acad Sci.; 1055: 93–135.
Fallah S, Sani FV, Firoozrai M. (2009). Effect of contraceptive pill on the selenium and zinc status of healthy subjects. Contracept;80:40-3.
Halliwell B. Free radicals and antioxidants: updating a personal view. Nutr Rev. 2012;70(5):257–65.
Ian M. and Malcolm E. (2004). Contraception and sterilization. Essential of Obstetrics and Gynecology; 4th ed. 21: 289.
Kaunitz and Andrew M. (2004). Enhancing oral contraceptive success. The Potential of New Formulations. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology; 190 (4): 23–29.
Kerksick C, Zuhl M. Mechanisms of oxidative damage and their impact on contracting muscle. In: Lamprecht M, editor. Antioxidants in sport nutrition. Bota Raton: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis; 2015. p. Chapter 1.
Lewis NA, Howatson G, Morton K, Hill J, Pedlar CR. Alterations in redox homeostasis in the elite endurance athlete. Sports Med. 2015;45(3):379–409.
Mosher, W.D. and Jones, J. (2010) Use of Contraception in the United States. Vital and Health Statistics, 23, 1982-2008.
Moaed E. Al-Gazally, Melal M. Al-Jeborry,Ghufran M. Al-Asadi.(2014). The Effect of Combined Oral Contraceptive Pills and Copper Bearing Intrauterine Contraceptive Devices on The Oxidative Stress, Lipid Profile and Some Trace Elements in Women Sera in Hilla City. Medical Journal of Babylon 7:4 , 2014
Neil, J.H. and Pearson, C.A. (1907). J. biol. Chem; 165-169
Nigeria (2013) Demographic Health Survey; Key Findings. 67-69, 72-74.
Olaniyan DA, Taylor S.(2004). Vitamin and antioxidant: The body fluid is not water. Nig Med J;16:20-31.
Palan, P.R., Strube, F. and Mikhail, M.S. (2010) Effects of Oral, Vaginal and Transdermal Hormonal Contraception on Serum Levels of Coenzyme Q10, Vitamin E and Total Antioxidant Activity. Obstetrics and Gynecology International, 2010, Article ID: 925635.
Prabhudas R. Palan, Felix Strube, Juraj Letko, Azra Sadikovic, andMagdy S.Mikhail (2010). Effects of Oral, Vaginal, and Transdermal Hormonal Contraception on Serum Levels of Coenzyme Q10, Vitamin E,and Total Antioxidant Activity. Obstetrics and Gynecology International Volume 2010, Article ID 925635, 4 pages
Whitaker, S. H. and Pierce, J. D.(2003) “Oxygen free radicals and the disease process,” Nurse Practitioner, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 53–54.
Call for Papers/Books/Thesis
Call for Scholarly Articles
Authors from around the world are invited to send scholary articles that suits the scope of this journal. The journal is currently open to submissions and will process and publish articles monthly in two yearly issues.
The journal is centered on quality and goes about its processes in a very timely fashion. Seasoned editors/reviewers will be consulted to review each article(s), profer quality evaluations and polish the articles with expertise before publication.
Simply send your article(s) as an e-mail attachment to firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com.
Call for Books
You are also invited to submit your books for online or print publication. We publish books related to all academic subject areas. Submit as an e-mail attachment to firstname.lastname@example.org.