Oguwike et al
Greener Journal of Medical Sciences Vol. 7 (1), pp. 005-011, February 2017.
Manuscript Number: 020617015
Effect of Pawpaw (Carica papaya) Latex on the Haemostatic Mechanism and Biochemical Profile of Male Albino Wistar Rats
Oguwike FN*, Nwafia WC, Nwozor CM, and Okeke JC
Department of Physiology, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University (Former Ansu) Uli Campus, Anambra State
Extracts of roots, stem, bark, leaves and sap of some medicinal plants have been known to have effect against the most dreaded pathogenic organism like the bacteria, Fungi, viruses (Russel et al, 1997). Soldiers need training, men and women do engage in exercises, children play in the field, most times people are not allowed to partake in their trainings, exercises or play due to bleeding from minor injuries which could be arrested using simple remedies from plants that could be found around the bush. Hence the effect of pawpaw (Carica papaya) latex on the haemostatic mechanism and biochemical profile of male albino wistar rats was studied to show the ability of Carica papaya latex to enhance haemostatic mechanism and stop bleeding.
Forty (40) male albino rats weighing 200-250g were selected for the study. Group 1 (10 rats) is the control group. Group 2 (10 rats) received topical application of the latex after wound laceration, Group 3 (10 rats) was fed orally (Enteral) with the latex for 5 days, while Group 4 (10 rats) was injected (Parenteral) with the latex (0.5ml) for 5 days. Thereafter, blood samples were collected from Groups 1, 3 and 4 for analysis such as Full blood count, Platelet count, Prothrombin time test, Partial thromboplastin time test, bleeding time, clotting time, biochemical test such as serum total bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, alkaline phosphatise, aspartate transaminase and alanin transaminase.
Calcium and alkaloids (protein precipitates) was discovered present in the latex of Carica papaya. They are known to be involved in the precipitation of coagulation factors (Tafeeq, et al 2008) which promotes clotting in rats. The latex of Carica papaya reduced haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and white blood cell count significantly (p<0.05) but the platelet count was very high (p<0.05). It also increased the total bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin and the liver enzymes but shortened bleeding and clotting times in vitro. It could be deduced that the presence of calcium and papain helped to reduce the bleeding and clotting times.
Key words: haemostasis, Carica papaya, clotting time, cuts, haemoglobin, platelets, bilirubin, aspartate transaminase.
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