Greener Journal of Physical Sciences

Open Access

Farid and Baloch

Greener Journal of  Physical Sciences Vol. 2 (2), pp. 036-043, April, 2012.

ISSN: 2276-7851 © 2012 Greener Journals

Research Paper

Heavy metal ions in milk samples collected from animals feed with city effluent irrigated fodder


*Sajid Farid and Musa Kaleem Baloch


Department of Chemistry, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan.


*Corresponding author’s E-mail: sajidnfciefr@ yahoo. com


Untreated city effluent is used as source of irrigation in Faisalabad, Pakistan for raising different crops including fodder which is used for feeding the animals in the cattle’s farms. This paper reports a study to assess the risks and opportunities associated with this practice by determining heavy metals concentration in milk, which is used in daily life excessively. Heavy metals and other properties were measured in typical effluents, four soils and three fodder crops. It was found that the city effluent increased heavy metals concentrations in the soil and ultimately in fodder. Furthermore Heavy metals concentrations in the milk were found above those normally associated with suitability for human consumption. It is recommended that effluent should be treated before it’s used for raising different crops.


Key words: City effluents. Irrigation quality, heavy metals, soil, fodder, milk

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